Archive | Lubrication Management & Technology


9:00 am
June 28, 2016
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Net-Oil Measurement

Foxboro NOCT60A net-oil Coriolis transmitter is an all-in-one meter and flow computer that provides a single-box solution for net-oil measurement applications. Consisting of a CFT51 Coriolis transmitter and a CFS10, CFS20, or CFS25 mass flow tube, the unit integrates digital technology with a built-in flow computer equipped with Realflo software to measure net-oil volumes on the liquid leg of two-phase separators or the oil leg of three-phase separators. The transmitter is said to solve common problems associated with the measurement of production fluids, including incomplete separation and gas carry-under, and of detecting adverse conditions such as fluid erosion, corrosion, and flowtube coating.
Schneider Electric
Foxboro, MA


9:57 pm
June 13, 2016
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Six Lubrication Myths Debunked

When it comes to machinery health, some lubrication myths are downright dangerous.

When it comes to machinery health, some lubrication myths are downright dangerous.

Despite years of concerted efforts by industry experts and suppliers, some dangerous lubrication myths continue to swirl around many maintenance operations. Motion Industries lubrication specialist Chris Kniestedt takes a down-and-dirty approach to debunk six of them.

Myth 1: All lubricating oils are the same.

From hydraulic fluids to gear lubricants to motor oils, each lubricant, be it synthetic or mineral-based, is uniquely formulated for its application with a specific viscosity; additive package; physical, chemical, and performance properties; and regulatory requirements. Various products may or may not be compatible with each other (see Myth 6).

Myth 2: If a little is good, more is better.

Take grease, for example. Over-greased bearings are a major cause of equipment failure. Blown seals and overheating are just two negative results of using too much grease. A general rule of thumb for normal- or high-speed machinery is that it’s better to err on the side of caution and to always check the OEM’s recommendations.

Overfilling gearboxes will also lead to problems, including failed shaft seals or increased operating temperatures. A gearbox that has too much oil will have to work harder to move through the lubricant, subsequently generating more heat or churning the oil into foam.

Myth 3: Blue, red, or black grease is better than white or clear grease.

Color is not a key factor in selecting grease for an application. There’s no standard for doing so. Instead, pay attention to base-oil viscosity (based on speed, load, and expected operating temperature), thickener type to mitigate incompatibility issues and consistency, and/or how well a product will pump at operating temperatures.

Myth 4: Tacky and stringy greases and oils offer better protection than non-tacky products.

It’s important to understand that lubricants are only 10- to 20-microns thick at the point of contact. Moreover, film thickness is a function of base-oil viscosity at operating temperature and speed (to a lesser degree, load). Thus, always use caution when applying tacky lubricants or greases with higher percentages of thickener at high operating speeds.

Myth 5: Food Grade (NSF H-1) products are never as good as Non-Food Grade (NSF H-2) products.

Advances in base-oil technology and additive chemistry have made Food Grade H1 products stronger than ever, particularly with synthetics. There are many applications where a correct, strong Food Grade H1 product will work as well as a non-Food Grade H2 mineral-oil-based equivalent.

Myth 6: All products are compatible.

Consider greases. In addition to their base oils and additive packages, greases are formulated with various thickeners (lithium, lithium complex, aluminum complex, calcium, polyurea, bentone, and silica gel), which aren’t necessarily compatible with each other. Always exercise caution when changing greases. Laboratory compatibility testing will clear up any doubts. If incompatibility exists between old and new products, purge bearings before changing to the new one. Oils aren’t always compatible either, especially with the new generation of synthetics. Finally, mixing Food Grade H1 lubricants with Non-Food Grade H2 will create contamination issues, which will cause you to lose H1 designation. MT

Chris Kniestedt is lubrication specialist for the San Francisco Division of Birmingham, AL-based Motion Industries. For more information visit


5:03 pm
June 13, 2016
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The Color of Lubrication

Add visual management to your lube-program toolbox through an array of color-coded solutions.

By Ken Bannister, MEch Eng (UK), CMRP, MLE, Contributing Editor

When you hear the word lubrication, what color comes to mind? If you answer brown, or allude to some shade of it, you’re in good company. More than 80% of maintainers to whom I’ve posed this question over the past 30 years have responded the same way.

The reality is that oil and grease products come in a rainbow of colors and shades, including white, gray, black, silver, blue, green, red, purple, and every variation of brown, from golden honey to dark, earth tones. Manufacturers typically color these products for their own purposes. Unfortunately, there’s no formal industry standard or convention regarding their choices, with the exception that most food-grade greases tend to be white.

Most lubricant colors are naturally influenced by the color of the crude base-oil stock and its additive package. For example, when molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is added in any quantity, it can significantly darken the lubricant to near black in color. Manufacturers, though, add colorants to their respective lubricants to help identify different brands and/or make products more appealing and marketable to the end user.

Despite incongruent colorization, maintenance departments can take advantage of differences in lubricant colors in their plants. For example, if two or more grease brands or different colors are employed in a facility, personnel can be made aware of which color belongs to what bearing by a photo of that grease color posted on the machine or close to the grease nipple. If a trace amount of the previously used grease is evident at the bearing or grease nipple, maintainers would (should be made to) understand that they are not to pump a grease of a different color or shade on top of the original grease.

Oil colors are a different matter. Oil ages in service and its additive package will deplete through contamination, heat, and oxidation. This causes a natural darkening in color. That visual cue has been used for many years in industry and the automotive world to manage oil changes. Sadly, this somewhat risky strategy can fall flat when an oil is changed out with one of a different color and additive composition—especially in the case of darker oils.

Introducing color coding

In 1950, the prestigious UK Scientific Lubrication Journal published an article by M.J. Harrison titled “Color Codes.” In it, Harrison, who at the time was an engineer in the technical department of the UK’s C.C. Wakefield & Co. (now known as Castrol), detailed a symbol/color-control system methodology for identifying the lubricants used in an industrial plant. As he pointed out, employing symbols to denote frequency of application and colors to signify lubricant type would ensure that unskilled workers were able to perform “factory lubrication” in a consistent manner, with scientific precision.

Harrison went on to recommend the use of different 1-in.-high geometric symbols painted on lubricant reservoirs or at lube points to represent lubrication-interval schedules. He proposed a circle to represent the need for daily lubrication, a triangle for weekly lubrication, and a square to represent monthly intervals between lubrication activities. For activities conducted on a quarterly basis (or over longer periods), the square was to again be used, but this time with a number painted inside the square to highlight the number of interval months.

To determine the correct lubricant to apply, each symbol was to be painted one of three primary colors: yellow, red, or blue to correspond with an already-determined lubricant legend. If more than three lubricants were to be used, the same colors were used again, but with the addition of a bold black diagonal stripe across the symbol.

But Harrison didn’t stop with the design and color of symbols and shapes to help identify different lubricant and application intervals in a facility. He also advocated color-coding reservoirs and dedicated transfer equipment to eliminate cross-contamination problems.

Which colors to use

Screen Shot 2016-06-13 at 2.46.48 PM

Color identification is an ideal means of ensuring that the right lubricant ends up in the right place, at the right time. The actual colors themselves are not as important as their consistent use, i.e., assigning a specific color to a single lubricant and all dedicated equipment employed in its use, storage, and transfer within the plant environment, as depicted in Fig. 1.

Fig. 2. This yellow-color-coded, transfer container is from OilSafe, Rockwall, TX (

Fig. 2. This yellow-color-coded, transfer container is from OilSafe, Rockwall, TX (

Harrison initially promoted the three primary colors of red, blue, and yellow for his system. In modern plant environments, however, we’re comfortable using primary and secondary color palettes, including green, orange, and purple. This is clearly evidenced by the breadth of today’s commercially available, color-coded lubrication-handling systems, including the example transfer products shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

Fig. 3. Shown is an orange-color-coded, clear-body, pistol-grip grease gun from OilSafe, Rockwall, TX (

Fig. 3. Shown is an orange-color-coded, clear-body, pistol-grip grease gun from OilSafe, Rockwall, TX (

Lubricant storage and transfer systems, though, reflect just one area where colorization pays off for a site. Another important use of color identification involves a condition-based approach to filling oil reservoirs.

Fig. 4. Color-coding is used on this condition-based Hi–Lo lubricant-reservoir-fill application. (courtesy EngTech Industries Inc.)

Fig. 4. Color-coding is used on this condition-based Hi–Lo lubricant-reservoir-fill application. (courtesy EngTech Industries Inc.)

Figure 4 is a good example of this Hi-Lo technique. It involves using red, amber (yellow), and green lines taped on the side of an automated-lubrication-system reservoir. This arrangement is known as a RAG (red/amber/green), or the traffic-light indicator system:

  • The green line indicates the upper fill level.
  • The amber (yellow) line indicates a level at which the operator is to contact the maintenance department with a first request to fill the reservoir.
  • The red line alerts the operator to call in a priority request to fill the reservoir.

Coloring your efforts

Today, you’ll find an array of color-coded tags and transfer equipment in the marketplace. These types of innovative solutions are relatively inexpensive to purchase and implement—and highly effective when used consistently. The question is, “Just how colorful are your lubrication efforts?”  MT

Ken Bannister is managing partner and principal consultant for EngTech Industries Inc., (Innerkip, Ontario, Canada), an asset management-consulting firm now specializing in the implementation of certifiable ISO 55001 lubrication-management programs and asset-management systems. For further details, telephone (519) 469-9173, or email

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7:27 pm
April 11, 2016
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Fund Your Lubrication Program Through Energy Savings

Good lubrication practices can help cut a site’s energy consumption and, in the process, possibly turn lubrication personnel into corporate heroes.

By Ken Bannister, MEch Eng (UK) CMRP, MLE

If you want to assure a reasonable life span for mechanical equipment with rotational and/or sliding elements built into its design, you must lubricate it. The benefits of doing so, however, go well beyond the health of the lubricated equipment.

Virtually all machine designs facilitate some form of lubrication by incorporating one or more means of lubricating bearing surfaces. These solutions range from something as simple and austere as grease nipples at major bearing points to full-blown, centralized, automated re-circulating-oil systems. Regardless of the method/system, it’s incumbent on the end user to understand all of the benefits that can be achieved through effective lubrication practices, and the importance of implementing and adhering to a lubrication regime based not on OEM recommendations, but rather on ambient and machine operating conditions.

Arguably, of all the interactions that can be performed between a person and a machine, lubrication will be one of the least expensive and, collectively, will deliver the greatest impact on machine performance in terms of its life cycle, availability, reliability, production throughput, quality, energy use, and carbon footprint.

Stamping-press case study 

The stamping press featured in this story is one of five 500-ton pure mechanical, straight-side presses at a site. The press stamps out automotive body pieces—requiring significant energy transfer.

This press employs an OEM-designed centralized box-cam-style automated recirculating-lubrication system that delivers a local re-refined (reclaimed) extreme-pressure (EP) 150 Gib and Way oil to rotating main and countershaft bearings and sliding surfaces. The system had not been calibrated since commissioning.

Energy is supplied by an electric variable-speed drive (VSD), and the press is used 12 shifts each week, for a total annual usage of 4,800 hr. Equipment monitors energy consumption over a 48-hr. period calculated an average use of 25.2 kW p/hr.

The press was observed under load with an infrared camera that showed lubrication delivery was unbalanced on the main and counterbalance shaft bearings. A 45 F temperature range between bearings indicated the need for immediate re-calibration of the lubrication system. The lubrication system also had numerous dirty filters. After the lubricant and filters were changed out, the press was restarted and the cam lubricators re-calibrated.

Back in production and monitored over another 48-hr. period, the stamping press showed a dramatic 18% reduction in energy consumption, i.e., with average usage at 20.5 kW p/hr.

Based on 4,800 running hr./yr. and a delivered energy price of 10 cents/kWhr the energy-reduction savings for one press was calculated as follows:

(25.2 x 4,800 x 0.1) – (20.5 x 4,800 x 0.1)  = (12,096 – 9,840)  = approx. $2,256 per press (or $11,280 for all five presses) 

The energy savings of 112,800 kWhr was also calculated against the carbon footprint. Using the Carbon Trust calculation of 1 kWhr = 0.000537 emission tonne equivalency, this automotive manufacturer accrued a carbon credit of approximately 60 tonnes—for just its presses.

Additional accrued benefits from the lubrication program implementation included:

  • reduced purchase costs through lubricant consolidation
  • reduced lubricant and replacement bearing carry costs
  • reduced lubricant stock rotation requirement
  • increased inventory real estate
  • reduced lubricant waste that could meet corporate environment and sustainability program mandates (ISO 14000 mandate).

Making engineered choices in lubricants, lubricant application devices/systems, and lubrication control will ensure that equipment delivers as designed, and, as an added bonus, help a site significantly cut its annual energy costs. The bottom line? A good-lubrication-practices program can front energy-waste-elimination efforts and be solely underwritten by the energy savings. MT

Contributing editor Ken Bannister is a Certified Maintenance and Reliability Professional and certified Machinery Lubrication Engineer (Canada). The author of Lubrication for Industry (Industrial Press, South Norwalk, CT) and the Lubrication Section of the 28th Edition of Machinery’s Handbook (Industrial Press), he can be reached at

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1:39 am
March 18, 2016
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Implement an Oil-Analysis Program

Chemical Laboratory,Hand holding the tube with test flask

Chemical Laboratory,Hand holding the tube with test flask

Keeping a close eye on the life-blood of your lubricated equipment systems pays off in many ways, all of them crucial.

By Ken Bannister, MEch Eng (UK) CMRP, MLE, Contributing Editor

When a doctor wants to assess the condition of your health, he or she may order a blood test. Similarly, oil analysis, sometimes referred to as “wear-particle analysis,” is a mature condition-based maintenance approach used to determine the health of a machine and its lubricating oil. The process involves taking a small sample of oil from the equipment’s lubrication system, comparing it to a virgin stock sample through a series of laboratory tests, and examining the results to ascertain the “wellness” of machinery and oil.

Oil analysis reflects a highly effective and inexpensive means of deciding when to change lubricants based on condition; predicting incipient bearing failure so that appropriate action can be taken in a timely manner to avert failure; and diagnosing bearing failure should it occur. Yet, despite its availability and proven track record since the 1940s, oil analysis is still misunderstood and overlooked as a proactive strategy in many of today’s industrial plants. Relatively easy to set up, this type of program should be implemented in any facility that purchases, stores, dispenses, changes, uses, or recycles lubricants as part of its manufacturing or maintenance process.

Basic implementation steps

A successful oil-analysis program can pay for itself in a matter of weeks, given the fact that it delivers multiple benefits, including:

  • oil change intervals (often extended) that are optimized to the machine’s ambient conditions and operational use requirements
  • probable reduction in lubricant-inventory purchase costs and spent-lubricant disposal costs
  • enhanced understanding of how bearings can fail (or are failing) in their operating environment so that such incidents can be controlled or eliminated
  • increased asset reliability, availability, and production throughput.

(NOTE: The potential for program success is greater if a site already has a work-management approach in place, thereby assuring completion of corrective actions in a timely manner whenever oil-analysis reports recommend them.)

Similar to other successful change-management initiatives rolled out across the organization, an oil-analysis program will benefit from a piloted, phased implementation. Taking a stepped approach allows management and workforce alike to become accustomed to the new sampling and reporting processes and quickly iron out any problems prior to a full-scale launch.

Step 1: Appoint a program champion.

All programs require a “go to” decision-making person who advocates on the initiative’s behalf and is committed to making the implementation a success. The champion should be at a supervisor or manager level.

Step 2: Choose a suitable pilot area/machine.

Oil analysis begins with sampling the oil and can include lubricating and hydraulic fluids. Choosing a suitable program pilot will depend on the type of industry and business operation. Typical starting points to evaluate might include:

  • critical product, process, line, or major piece of equipment, i.e., criticality determined by constraint and/or lack of back up, downtime costs, and product quality
  • mechanical equipment with moving components that include lubricant reservoirs for re-circulating-oil-transmission systems that are mechanical and/or hydraulic in design.

Step 3: Conduct a lubricant audit.

A lubricant audit, required to identify what lubricants are currently employed in service at the plant, calls for the following:

  • Check work-order system PM (preventive maintenance) job plans for lubricant specification(s).
  • Check on or near the lubricant reservoir for lubricant identification labels or stickers.
  • Check for matching MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets).

If a discrepancy is found at this stage, outside assistance from a lubrication expert or supplier may be needed to determine if the correct lubricants are being specified for particular applications.

Step 4: Choose a laboratory.

Not all oil-analysis laboratories are created equal, making your choice of one an important step. Most oil-analysis reports are divided into four major sections that provide:

  • sampling and virgin-oil specification data
  • spectral-analysis testing results for wear elements identified as lubricant additives or contaminants
  • additional physical test results for viscosity, water, glycol, fuel, soot, and acidity
  • associated conclusions and recommendations.

Some laboratories specialize in engine-oil analyses that focus more on physical testing for water, glycol, fuel, and soot. Others specialize in industrial-sample analyses that focus more on wear-particle evaluations and some physical tests for viscosity, water, and acidity, and post-mortem testing for root-failure causes using ferrographic techniques. Some laboratories have technicians that specialize in both areas.

The key to any testing program is receiving results in a timely and consistent manner, especially where critical equipment is involved. When interviewing laboratories, be sure to rate their sample “turnaround” time and how they can assure testing consistency (usually through use of dedicated technicians to test your samples). Working with a laboratory should be viewed as a long-term relationship. The chosen facility will build and analyze your complete data history and make conclusions and recommendations based not only on your current sample versus its virgin sample counterpart, but also on an understanding of your plant ambient conditions and overall trending history of each sample.

Step 5: Set up a pilot sampling program.

A good laboratory will work with you to set up your sampling program, supply (in some way) sampling-point hardware, extraction pumps, and quality sample bottles, as well as train your staff to consistently collect “clean” oil samples.

The best oil samples contain maximum data density with minimum data disturbance—meaning the sample should best represent the oil’s condition and particulate levels as it flows through the system or as it sits in a reservoir. For example, if you extract a sample from the bottom of a reservoir in a non-pressurized gearbox lubrication system, the particulate fallout will be dense due to large wear particles and/or sludge accumulation and not correctly represent the remaining 80% to 90% of reservoir lubricant that actually lubricates the gears.

In a pressurized re-circulating lubrication system, samples are best taken as the machine is running and at operating temperature, from a live fluid zone where the lubricant is flowing freely. Whenever possible, the sample should be extracted from an elbow, thereby taking advantage of the data density caused by fluid turbulence. Sample points are best located downstream of the lubricated areas to catch any wear elements before they’re filtered out by inline pressure or gravity filters.

Virgin samples of all lubricants in the pilot program will need to be collected and sent to the laboratory for checking. They’ll be used as a benchmark for the laboratory to measure and understand what additive ingredients and lubricant condition represents a normal state. This type of benchmarking will lead to easier identification of additive depletion and wear elements in subsequent samples. 

Outside assistance/training from a lubrication expert or oil-analysis laboratory is advisable when setting up the pilot sample points.

Step 6: Set up a work-management approach to sampling.

Lubricant sampling must be performed consistently, on a frequent basis—making it a suitable candidate for a maintenance/asset-management work-order system. Using the written sampling procedure as a job plan, the task can be set up effectively through PM scheduling software.

Extracting and sending a sample to the laboratory is only the first half of the oil-analysis process. Someone (usually the planner, if one exists) has to receive the results electronically by email, read the recommendations, and take any necessary corrective action and/or file the laboratory report electronically to history, usually as an attachment to the PM sampling work order. This will require development of a workflow procedure—and training all maintenance staff involved in the program on the procedure. 

Step 8: Commence sampling and program roll-out.

An oil-analysis program will identify major contamination and wear problems with the first sample set. Sample trending can begin with the third set, wherein the site starts identifying/predicting any negative trend toward potential failure and schedule corrective action before failure occurs. Ideally, a pilot program should be allowed to run for approximately three months or longer to show basic results before tweaking it and rolling out to the next area within a plant.

Once a program is working and providing results, larger-sized enterprises may wish to consider investing in an in-house staffed laboratory that will deliver faster results turnaround. MT

Contributing editor Ken Bannister is a Certified Maintenance and Reliability Professional and certified Machinery Lubrication Engineer (Canada). He is the author of Lubrication for Industry (Industrial Press, South Norwalk, CT) and the Lubrication Section of the 28th Ed. of Machinery’s Handbook (Industrial Press). Contact him at

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1:48 am
March 9, 2016
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Simalube IMPULSE Pressure Booster Overcomes Long-Lubrication-Line Challenges and More

Screen Shot 2016-03-08 at 7.30.22 PMsimatec Inc. (Charlotte, NC) refers to its recently launched simalube IMPULSE pressure booster (up to 145 psi) as “the perfect complement” to its 60-, 125-, and 250-ml simalube lubricators. An addition to the company’s portfolio of smart technologies, simalube IMPULSE is well suited for high-counterpressure applications and systems with long lubrication lines (up to 4 meters, or approximately 13 feet, in length.). The unit’s compact size allows installation in the smallest of spaces, in all positions, even underwater. As an IP68 protection class device, it’s dustproof, waterproof, and appropriate for use in a wide range of industries.

Screen Shot 2016-03-08 at 6.48.16 PMHow It Works
According to the manufacturer, users simply affix the simalube IMPULSE to the selected lubrication point, screw on the required simalube lubricator and activate the unit for the desired dispensing time. The device starts operating as soon as a battery pack is inserted and the lubricator is attached. Continuous lubrication impulses of 0.5 ml supply the lubrication point with oil or grease up to NLGI 2 at a pressure of up to 10 bar. This action is gentle on the lubricant, as only the dosing volume is placed under pressure.

This simalube IMPULSE also continually signals its operating state. When the unit is properly installed, an LED indicator flashes green at regular intervals. Red flashes indicate overpressure, inactive, and empty conditions. Although dispensing intervals set by the lubricator may change, this intelligent pressure-boosting device will automatically adjust.

Maintainability and Service Life
During lubricator change-outs, the simalube IMPULSE stays firmly affixed to the lubrication point. The connection point remains sealed throughout the process, and no lubricant back-flow occurs. Equipped with a fresh battery pack after each lubricator change-out, the pressure-booster can be used multiple times (for 10 simalube 125 ml dispensing cycles or for up to three years).

For more information, CLICK HERE.




4:50 pm
February 24, 2016
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Prevent Motor-Bearing Failures

Learn the latest on the top five causes of failed motor bearings to help stop these problems in their tracks.

By examining a failed motor bearing and understanding the clues that various types of damage often produce, you can keep these problems from plaguing your motor fleet in the future.

By examining a failed motor bearing and understanding the clues that various types of damage often produce, you can keep these problems from plaguing your motor fleet in the future.

According to the bearing experts at SKF (Gothenburg, Sweden, and Lansdale, PA) these five damage mechanisms are the most common causes of motor-bearing failures. Understanding them as you examine a failed bearing can help you prevent their recurrence.

Electrical erosion
Electric erosion (arcing) can occur when a current passes from one ring to the other through the rolling elements of a bearing. While the extent of the damage depends on the amount of energy and its duration, the result is usually the same: pitting damage to the rolling elements and raceways, rapid degradation of the lubricant, and premature bearing failure. To prevent damage from electric-current passage, an electrically insulated bearing at the non-drive end is usually installed.

Inadequate lubrication and contamination
If the lubricant film between a bearing’s rolling elements and raceways is too thin due to inadequate viscosity or contamination, metal-to-metal contact occurs. Check first whether the appropriate lubricant is being used and that re-greasing intervals and quantity are sufficient for the application. If the lubricant contains contaminants, check the seals to determine whether they should be replaced or upgraded. In some cases, depending on the application, a lubricant with a higher viscosity may be needed to increase the oil-film thickness.

Damage from vibration
Motors transported without the rotor shaft held securely in place can be subjected to vibrations within the bearing clearance that could damage these components. Similarly, if a motor is at a standstill and subjected to external vibrations over a period of time, its bearings can also be damaged. To prevent these problems, secure the bearings during transport in the following manner: Lock the shaft axially using a flat steel bent in a U-shape, while carefully preloading the ball bearing at the non-drive end. Then radially lock the bearing at the drive end with a strap. In case of prolonged periods of standstill, turn the shaft from time to time.

Damage caused by improper installation and set-up
Common mistakes in installation include using a hammer or similar tool to mount a coupling half or belt pulley onto a shaft; misalignment; imbalance; excessive belt tension; and incorrect mounting resulting in overloading. To prevent these problems, use precision instruments such as shaft-alignment tools and vibration analyzers and other appropriate tools and methods when mounting bearings.

Insufficient bearing load Bearings always need to have a minimum load to function well. If they don’t, damage will appear as smearing on the rolling elements and raceways. To prevent these problems, be sure to apply a sufficiently large external load to the bearings. This is crucial with cylindrical roller bearings, since they are typically used to accommodate heavier loads. (This, however, does not apply to preloaded bearings.)

SKF is s a global supplier of bearings, seals, mechatronics, lubrication systems, and services that include technical support, maintenance and reliability services, and engineering consulting and training. For more information on motor bearings and other technologies and topics, visit