Archive | Predictive Maintenance

336

7:09 pm
April 11, 2016
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IIoT Maturation Coming?

grant gerkeBy Grant Gerke, Contributing Editor

February’s inaugural “Industrial Internet of Things” (IIoT) column discussed how the massive move to more sensors and analytics in manufacturing isn’t just a passing fad: It’s transformative. How do companies implement a data strategy with current production systems in place?

Each company needs a starting point in the IIoT journey, but a fully realized data strategy is hard to wrap your arms around today—and was even harder in 2012. That’s when Southern Company, Atlanta, an energy producer and transmission line supplier, decided to tackle the problem. The company is a large energy player in the deep-South region, with 27,000 miles of transmission lines that run through Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, in addition to operating several natural-gas and generation assets.

In a recent manufacturing webinar, Elizabeth Bray, principal engineer at Southern Company, discussed some newly enacted pilot projects involving the corporation’s transmission businesses and the move toward condition-based monitoring for its transformers at more than 3,700 substations.

Before the recent pilot, Southern Company began to add sensors and monitoring capabilities to make a future business case for a centralized program. Southern Company uses the eDNA data historian and PRiSM modeling from Schneider Electric for its transformers. These tools allow operations and maintenance teams to organize data into easy-to-read charts on monitoring screens and identify rates of changes or current deviations for its assets.

One example of success in the recent pilot program alerted a maintenance engineer to capacitor issues with a particular transformer. The eDNA trend tool and PRiSM modeling allowed centralized monitoring teams to identify a rate-of-change alert and allow maintenance to be performed before a peak period could cause downtime.

The eDNA trend tool and PRiSM modeling allowed Southern’s centralized monitoring teams to identify a rate-of-change alert and allow maintenance to be performed before a peak period could cause downtime.

The eDNA trend tool and PRiSM modeling allowed Southern’s centralized monitoring teams to identify a rate-of-change alert and allow maintenance to be performed before a peak period could cause downtime.

This is a great example of software and platform analytic delivering on a large sensing development. In Maintenance Technology’s “Final Thought” column, guest columnist Rene G. Gonzalez noted that this type of trend is quite pervasive in the energy industry. As an example, he cited a typical refinery as increasing its number of sensors from 20,000 five years ago, to 100,000 today.   

Some industry observers, such as Joe Barkai, former VP of Research at IDC, Framingham, MA, are pushing for standardization of instrumentation and devices to reduce costs for manufacturers. According to Barkai, “There aren’t enough standards for the industrial IoT space, and the robust use of standards is critical to accelerate innovation and scalable IoT ecosystems.”

While Barkai is right, most enterprises need solutions now to visualize trapped machine and system data for maintenance teams. With the increasing number of mergers and acquisitions added to the mix, large manufacturers are now assimilating disparate platforms and control architectures to the current plant-production systems.

John Rinaldi, president of Real Time Automation, Pewaukee, WI, spells out specific problems for manufacturers using older controllers in a recent article, titled, “Mining Manufacturing Data | Leveraging Trapped Data for Results” (automation.com, Aug. 21 2015). “Many controllers,” he wrote, “do not have the software and hardware to communicate data to asset-management and information systems using current computing methods.”

Beside the exceptional computing power of the cloud, industrial networking is another huge component of IIoT. Rinaldi pointed to the advantages of intelligent network gateways, which can “extract information residing in PLCs and communicate data to maintenance-management or asset-management systems.” This allows disparate networks or systems to communicate and even perform math functions on process data and send email alarms to maintenance technicians on changes-of-states.

Operations and maintenance now can measure machine cycles, runtime, and other data to perform predictive maintenance without disrupting control architectures and plant performance. Also, a minimal capital investment solution holds water with management. MT

Grant Gerke is a business writer and content marketer in the manufacturing, power, and renewable-energy space. He has 15 years of experience covering the industrial and field-automation industries.

50

4:02 pm
April 6, 2016
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White Paper | Predictive Analytics for Power Plants

Power producers are encountering many changes to their business model and remote monitoring — along with predictive analytics — is an attractive value proposition to end users. GE’s Predix platform offers SmartSignal, a software system that models historian plant data and constructs anomaly data to measure current conditions at a power plant. The modeling is called Variable Similarity-Based Modeling (VBM) technology and can be teamed up with GE’s Industrial Performance and Reliability Center (IPRC) to provide a comprehensive reliability solution.

This white paper introduces key concepts from the SmartSignal software and examines three power plant case studies.

Read White Paper >>

Maintenance Technology’s IIoT page | Find out more about edge computing and other proactive maintenance approaches. 

55

5:55 pm
March 18, 2016
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Going With the Grain

Unloading Corn

Advanced monitoring and diagnostics help a large-scale grain manufacturer improve its maintenance processes.

You never know what you might see while driving down a country road: a herd of grazing cattle, a quaint produce stand, or a beautiful beam of sunlight shining through massive towers on a grain farm. Looking at those picturesque storage bins in the haze of a mid-summer afternoon, you might not realize they can contain as much as $4 million worth of product. Imagine the impact on a farm or grain elevator and the safety issues for those working at the facility if something were to happen to the grain.

Delivering harvested grain to storage bins and ensuring that ideal conditions exist inside such units are two major components of a large-scale grain manufacturer’s operation.

Delivering harvested grain to storage bins and ensuring that ideal conditions exist inside such units are two major components of a large-scale grain manufacturer’s operation.

The challenge

Delivering harvested grain to storage bins/silos and ensuring that ideal conditions exist inside such units are two major components of a large-scale grain-manufacturing operation. Once harvested, grain is moved from storage trucks or containers on the ground to the top of the large storage bins. From there, it is either dumped into a bin or transported across a conveyance system that connects multiple bins. These systems, which run across the tops of the storage bins, make it possible to fill multiple units from one conveyance system. Over time, the system’s many moving conveyor parts can fail or slip.

Moving the grain to the storage bin is only half the battle. The other half is ensuring that the product is properly stored.

Once grain has been safely transferred to a storage bin, temperature becomes a potential concern. If the temperature inside these bins is too high, it can cause issues with the grain quality. Factors such as an insect infestation or moisture, which causes fermentation, can contribute to temperature spikes. In addition, and in extreme cases, these high temperatures can also cause hot spots in the grain, which can lead to unexpected combustion inside the bin. 

The solution

Ensuring that all bin systems—inside and outside—are running reliably and efficiently, and maintaining proper operating conditions, is essential to minimizing downtime and preventing losses. That’s why some advanced grain-storage facilities are implementing a combination of remote-monitoring software and sensors to provide in-depth insights into their operations. With this technology, they are able to monitor temperature increases inside grain bins, as well as component wear and overall operations on conveyance systems. Collected data provide a better understanding of how their systems are functioning and what aspects may require maintenance.

This was the case with a grain manufacturer with operations across the central U.S. Due to the size of the enterprise, diagnosing problems in conveyor systems or storage bins would be a time-consuming and costly process. The company chose to implement hazard- and temperature-monitoring solutions from TempuTech (Byhalia, MS), a provider and original-equipment manufacturer (OEM) of grain-management systems, to take its monitoring and diagnostics capabilities to the next level.

One of the biggest problems facing TempuTech’s services organization, however, was the amount of “windshield time” that it could take to complete the diagnostics process, obtain parts, and complete a repair for its customers. When a problem occurs at a customer’s facility, that relaxing, scenic country drive is soon replaced with multiple trips back and forth to figure out what’s wrong and to take the necessary steps to quickly get the operation back to normal.

First is the trip to the facility to determine the source of the issue, then back to get the right parts—or, in some instances, waiting on site for as many as two days for the necessary parts to be delivered—and finally, back to the site to begin the repair or replacement. All the while, grain-facility management is losing money from a shutdown.

To combat these problems, TempuTech selected GE’s Equipment Insight solution, powered by the cloud-based Predix diagnostics platform, to augment its existing offerings. Equipment Insight is an out-of-the-box remote monitoring and diagnostics solution designed to help OEMs and their end customers improve system performance, grow profits, and reduce operating costs. An Industrial Internet solution, it allows OEMs to securely collect and analyze machine data from intelligent devices in the field and to relay key information to their employees and end users. The system offers on-site viewing, virtual monitoring through a secure cloud environment from mobile devices or browsers, and the ability to control grain-transfer operations across a facility.

For TempuTech, Equipment Insight enables improved visibility into asset health and better monitoring capabilities of its solutions; ultimately streamlining its maintenance processes, providing better service and support, and enhancing their relationships with end customers. While its hazard- and temperature-monitoring systems already provided improved capabilities and valuable data for the grain-handling facility, supplementing them with GE’s Equipment Insight solution took the site’s monitoring and diagnostics capabilities to a higher level.

Together, the two companies offer customers a comprehensive solution capable of real-time, proactive alarming; automatic backup and redundancy features; mobile capability; customizable reports; and delivery of in-depth data when alarms are triggered.

With the temperature-monitoring system in place, standardized temperature reports can be sent directly to the manufacturing-facility operator on a daily basis so that grain temperature can be reduced as needed to protect the product from contaminations, infestations, and hot spots.

Moreover, with the hazard-monitoring system, the operator can now pinpoint problems in the conveyor systems, i.e., belt misalignment and slippage, speed variation, and overheated bearings, thus enabling maintenance to be performed as it is needed and before a large-scale shutdown is required.

Through the pairing of TempuTech’s temperature- and hazard-monitoring systems and GE’s Equipment Insight solution, grain-facility managers can analyze a combination of compiled information and turn it into actionable insight. This ability has helped TempuTech improve its services capabilities in that it is now able to identify problems faster and more efficiently while providing increased visibility into the health of a customer’s assets. It can also schedule service and maintenance before downtime occurs—before the grain manufacturer even knows there’s a problem.

With the data collected and analyzed by the solutions, TempuTech can show up onsite with the right parts in hand, the moment that an issue is detected, reducing windshield time for its employees and repair time and costs for its customers.

Diagnosing problems in grain conveyor systems can be a time-consuming and costly process.

Diagnosing problems in grain conveyor systems can be a time-consuming and costly process.

The result

In leveraging GE’s Equipment Insight, TempuTech is transforming its business model from being a break/fix maintenance provider to a proactive partner, helping to eliminate unplanned downtime and increase productivity for its customers. Additionally, its pilot customer, the large-scale grain-handling operation, expects to improve its asset performance, reduce unplanned downtime, and improve decision-making effectiveness.

Based on this pilot implementation, TempuTech plans to offer an integrated system that controls all aspects of a grain-storage facility, i.e., one that combines different applications, devices, sensors, databases, and systems into one mobile-accessible solution capable of starting, monitoring, and stopping key processes, when needed, and creating preventive-maintenance reports.

With its own temperature- and hazard-monitoring systems and GE’s Equipment Insight, the company will be able to provide current and future customers with a solution capable of seamlessly connecting their machines, data, insights, and people.  MT

GE’s Equipment Insight solution is part of the company’s Automation & Controls portfolio, which is part of GE Energy Connections, Atlanta. For more information, visit geautomation.com.

887

5:20 am
March 18, 2016
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“Pit Crews” Keep Snacks On Track

Cheetos snacks move through an accumulation conveyor at the Perry, GA, Frito-Lay manufacturing facility.

Cheetos snacks move through an accumulation conveyor at the Perry, GA, Frito-Lay manufacturing facility.

High-performance machines require highly skilled professionals who use a race-car team approach to maintenance and reliability at Frito-Lay’s largest North American manufacturing facility.

By Michelle Segrest,  Contributing Editor

Lay's potato chips move up the potato chip incline conveyor to seasoning.

Lay’s potato chips move up the potato chip incline conveyor to seasoning.

The one million-sq.-ft. Frito-Lay manufacturing facility in Perry, GA, operates like a well-oiled, high-speed race-car track.

The operations teams drive the machines, but it’s the 100 maintenance professionals on five specialized teams who work in the garage and in the pits to build, repair, and optimize the equipment—taking it from the shop to the track. They ensure the production stays in constant motion as it circles the refined Frito-Lay course, around-and-around, nonstop, 24/7.

Perry’s director of maintenance and engineering, Craig Hoffman, is the crew chief. The overall maintenance philosophy requires proactive maintenance and methodologies, he said. However, just like a race-team pit crew, they must have the ability to respond to unexpected issues.

“NASCAR teams spend a lot of time in their shops building their cars, analyzing, making adjustments, and fixing problems. We use similar techniques,” Hoffman said. “Our foundation is planning and scheduling, which is supported by preventive and predictive maintenance and root-cause analysis. We do everything we can to make sure our equipment is ready to perform.”

In a facility that produces thousands of pounds of potato chips, tortilla chips, and many other Frito-Lay products per hour, the equipment must stay in optimal condition to deliver high-performance production, he said.

“Our job is to turn the equipment over, in the best possible shape, to the operations group. But every race day there is a situation where you have to respond. When something happens, we go into the pit-crew mentality—it’s all hands on deck. What is constantly on our minds is how to keep our equipment in safe, reliable, food-safe condition so that the drivers can continue to move the lines around the track. We do a great job upfront with our proactive technologies. I would love to say we are perfect. When, however, you have as much equipment as we do, something is going to happen. And we have to be able to respond.” 

The different teams play different roles, yet all share a common goal: to produce millions of pounds of snack foods annually.

The Perry facility houses 15 manufacturing lines that produce all flavor varieties of Frito-Lay snacks, including Doritos, Cheetos, Tostitos, Ruffles, Lay’s, Fritos, SunChips, Stacy’s, Smartfood, Rold Gold, and Funyuns. Built in 1988 with just two lines, the largest of Frito-Lay’s 36 North American manufacturing facilities has built several expansions in nearly three decades, including three production lines in the past 14 months.

Maintenance philosophy

Doritos nacho-cheese-flavored chips travel through the distribution system to packaging. Photos: Michelle Segrest.

Doritos nacho-cheese-flavored chips travel through the distribution system to packaging. Photos: Michelle Segrest.

Hoffman’s team is responsible for the maintenance of countless pieces of equipment, including fryers, ovens, extruders, a fleet of automated vehicles (including cranes and robots), weighers, kettles, pumps, motors, instrumentation, packaging equipment, seasoning-application equipment, boilers, air compressors, air dryers, switch gears, bag-packaging tubes, and several miles of conveyors throughout the facility.

The site’s maintenance professionals are divided into five teams that cover all facets of the facility:

  • core plant – includes all of the machines that manufacture, package, and process the larger, core products such as Lay’s and Doritos
  • bakery area – manufactures, packages, and processes baked products
  • facility – handles buildings, grounds, infrastructure, boilers, compressors, steam system, and other related equipment
  • warehouse – takes care of the shipping and distribution equipment, and all palletizing equipment, robots, and cranes
  • controls – manages the controls infrastructure, all operator interface terminals, PLC programming, and IT systems.

Hoffman teaches planning classes to all Frito-Lay employees. “I always cite the example of changing oil in the car,” he said. “Most people tell you put the car up on blocks, drain the old oil, then put in the new oil. When I change the oil, I go into my shop first and make sure I have the oil filter. I make sure I have the oil. I make sure my jack is in good condition, and I have jack stands for safety. Then I make sure it is time to change the oil. A lot of people tear right into a project without having the right parts or the right information to do the job. To me, this is all about planning.”

“Another example is when you go on vacation,” Hoffman said. “I don’t know anyone who just wakes up one morning and says, ‘I’m out of here.’ You plan the vacation. You decide where you are going to go, what you are going to do, where you will stay. You buy tickets. You put a plan together before you go tackle that vacation, just like we would put a plan together before we would tackle any job. We are making sure we have the right parts, the right information, and the right tools to go execute good work.”

The work comes from the facility’s PM (preventive maintenance) system. Operators provide insight on how their machines are running. Then the maintenance team maps out a plan to restore the equipment to the optimal operating condition. When the plan is set, they schedule and execute it. “If you don’t have a plan, you have no control. If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.”

Even though it is a low percentage of the time, unplanned maintenance also happens, according to Jim Northcutt who is in charge of all maintenance and engineering for Frito-Lay’s 36 North American facilities. He coordinates the facility maintenance managers from the corporate office in Plano, TX, and executes a streamlined maintenance approach across all facilities.

“The company, as a whole, runs very efficiently,” Northcutt explained. “When we do have an unplanned event, the maintenance managers get their team marshaled around making sure they have the right tools and the right expertise to get it corrected and back online. There is not a silver bullet there. It is just really good people who work in our organization who are very talented.”

Best maintenance practices

Maintenance mechanics Mike Day and Dave Maddox oversee shop rebuilds.

Maintenance mechanics Mike Day and Dave Maddox oversee shop rebuilds.

Planning and scheduling is supported with an in-depth PM system, along with highly upgraded technology such as vibration analysis and ultrasound, and carefully crafted PdM (predictive-maintenance) processes.

For corrective work, the planners and schedulers go to the storage area and check out several parts and then kit them for the mechanics, Hoffman said. Then jobs are reviewed with the mechanics. “The key here is to make our mechanics as successful as possible by giving them the right equipment, the right parts, and the right tools to maximize wrench time. This way, when they are out on the floor they have everything they need. It eliminates travel time back and forth and maximizes our ability to perform corrective work and keep our plant in a reliable state.”

When the mechanics receive a schedule, it determines the location of the kitting bin. The bins are numbered and lettered so the mechanic can easily find them and be prepared to successfully perform the job.

The planning and scheduling foundation translates across all North American facilities, Northcutt said. “If you look at it in its most simplistic terms, we plan it, we schedule it, we execute it,” he said. “As a company, throughout all facilities, planning and scheduling is what we hang our hat on.” 

Other best practices include using condition-based approaches and the previously referenced predictive technologies, i.e., thermography, ultrasound, and vibration analysis. Staffing and development is also important, said Richard Cole, director of maintenance and engineering at the Fayetteville, TN, facility.

“It is crucial to have the right people in the right place,” Cole said. “We are continuously developing their skills. We leverage local junior colleges and trade schools to bring in students as interns to work with the mechanics and get training. We have a strong focus around processes and systems, planning and scheduling, work orders, and predictive maintenance. We must always be looking at continuous improvement from scorecards and action plans. Reward and recognition also plays a role in our maintenance strategy.”

Knowing the score

To stay on track, Frito-Lay believes in knowing the score.

“We track our downtime performance here very closely,” Hoffman said. “We have the ability, through technology, to monitor our line performance almost to the minute. I challenge my managers and my mechanics to always know the score. It’s just like how a racecar driver knows what lap he is on, how much fuel he has left, and how much air is in the tires—he knows when to make a pit stop. You always have to know where you stand against the target you set.”

Maintenance planners Tim Waller, Don Reynolds, and Jeff Tuck take a break in the maintenance-parts room. Planning, scheduling, and kitting parts is a key component of the overall maintenance strategy at Frito-Lay.

Maintenance planners Tim Waller, Don Reynolds, and Jeff Tuck take a break in the maintenance-parts room. Planning, scheduling, and kitting parts is a key component of the overall maintenance strategy at Frito-Lay.

Frito-Lay’s key performance indicators (KPIs) include safety scores, such as the number of days the facility has gone injury free. They also measure total downtime, equipment downtime, operation downtime, changeovers, and material-related downtime.

“We have to have our house in order and provide a stable, safe work environment for our operators,” Hoffman said. With multiple changeovers, the quality could go south fast and our operators become extremely frustrated. If we hold our equipment reliability at the highest level, our operators have a very good chance to have a successful day. It allows them to focus on their quality metrics, how their line is running, and how we are holding our product to the highest standard. This is especially important when [it comes to] making food.”

Northcutt said anyone at any of the facilities in the U.S. and Canada can immediately see the metrics.

“I’m an old football coach, and I believe in knowing the score,” Northcutt noted. “Mechanics and those running the equipment from an operations perspective all know the score. This includes everything from planning and scheduling to inventory control to efficiency. Our ability to focus in on performance to improve performance makes us unique as an organization. On a weekly basis, the operations and technical teams come together to talk about outages or failures and then they step back and consider if it’s systemic or a piece of equipment. We call that ‘fix it forever.’”

Frito-Lay promotes internal competitions among facilities to inspire the operations and maintenance teams to keep score on key metrics. The company provides performance reports and ranks the various sites in different categories. There is a national downtime competition throughout the year that measures uptime and unplanned downtime. Winning teams are recognized through various company incentives.

“In this business, we like to know if we won,” Hoffman said. “If you don’t keep the numbers visible to the team, and if they don’t think it’s important to the leadership, their motivation will falter. Keeping the score is the greatest motivational technique we have in this business. Talk to any of my mechanics, they will tell you that I’m all about watching the downtime numbers with a goal of minimal downtime.”

The Fayetteville site’s Richard Cole pointed out that the friendly competitive challenges across facilities are motivational, but the teams also remember they are ultimately on the same side. Successful new processes and systems are shared across sites and the camaraderie that develops is strong. Support is given throughout the company, whether it’s hands-on, directional, or coaching to help personnel at all Frito-Lay sites improve performance.

Keeping up with new technology

Maintenance mechanic Fred Luther uses ultrasound technology as part of routine predictive maintenance.

Maintenance mechanic Fred Luther uses ultrasound technology as part of routine predictive maintenance.

Because Perry is the largest, most complex Frito-Lay facility, it has become the test site for new technology.

“If there is a new piece of equipment, we have very close contact with corporate engineering and our research-and-development team. They want to bring it here and let us try to help make it successful or let us cut our teeth on it and prove it before we deploy it to other facilities,” Hoffman said.

The Perry facility also has technically apt teams. “We are blessed with some of the most highly skilled maintenance and technology professionals in the company,” he added. “So we get all the new toys. It’s kind of cool. It challenges us.”

The teams go through rigorous training with the equipment vendors and supplement it with training at local technical schools. They also solicit other vendors and suppliers to provide training programs and classes on new technology.

Leveraging improvement, energy, and reliability

According to Hoffman, many different facets of continuous improvement are introduced at the Perry site and throughout all Frito-Lay operations. Through root-cause analysis, issues are engineered to avoid repeat failures, and improvement programs are launched to upgrade or harden pieces of equipment to increase reliability.

The team also troubleshoots how to reduce utility consumption while maintaining reliability. They study how to reduce parts costs and the overall cost of making the product.

“Our primary focus in the reliability business is just that…how do we become more reliable?” Hoffman said. “A lot of continuous improvement involves hot teams. So if there is an issue on the floor, for example, repeat failures, or if the operations team cannot get to the quality metrics they need, we will launch a hot team right there. Often cases involve managers, maintenance technicians, and operations professionals. We’ll brainstorm and come up with ideas, call outside vendors, and find some potential improvements.”

Palletizing robots prep product for distribution.

Palletizing robots prep product for distribution.

The focus becomes more than just reliability issues. Hot teams are also formed to solve issues that surround quality, safety, and operation optimization, to reduce the overall cost of the production.

“When you have a major failure or breakdown on a manufacturing line, everything sits there running,” Hoffman said. “You are still using gas to keep the ovens and fryers hot. Electricity is making all the other motors turn, but if you’re not making product, you’re just wasting utilities. If you have a reliable plant, inherently you improve your utility usage because you make product when you are supposed to.”

Frito-Lay supports other programs, including combustion tuning, minimizing fuel usage, and reducing utility consumption.

Production consistency

PepsiCo, Frito-Lay’s parent company, recently celebrated its 50th anniversary. The corporate arm keeps a keen eye on maintaining consistency throughout its processes, Northcutt said.

“Anytime you have a multi-plant environment, you have to have consistency,” Northcutt said. “A Lay’s potato chip made in California or Canada has to taste the same as the ones produced in Georgia. One thing we did well many years ago was rolling out and making sure everyone had the same tools, the same CMMS, the same inventory control, and the same purchasing process. We rolled out ultrasound as our primary condition-based tool. Consistency from one site to the other is something that becomes really important. We make sure to have consistent applications and then everyone is on the same playbook.” MT

Michelle Segrest has been a professional journalist for 27 years. She has covered the industrial processing industries for nine years and toured manufacturing facilities in 28 cities in six countries on three continents.

Frito-Lay Fayetteville Facility Earns Maintenance Excellence Award

The Foundation for Industrial Maintenance Excellence (FIME) organization is dedicated to the recognition of maintenance and reliability as a profession. FIME sponsors the North American Maintenance Excellence (NAME) Award, which is an annual program that recognizes North American organizations that excel in performing the maintenance process to enable operational excellence.

Frito-Lay’s Fayetteville, TN, site was the recipient of the prestigious award in 2011.

Jim Northcutt and Richard Cole were heavily involved in fulfilling the stringent requirements to achieve this honor.

“Jim and I are constantly looking outside of Frito-Lay to study industry trends and best maintenance and manufacturing practices,” Cole said. “It’s important to have opportunities to see what other companies are doing and research new technologies to bring back to the organization.”

Through the NAME Award process and also finding industry partners, including the Univ. of Tennessee Reliability and Maintenance Center and organizations such as SMRP, Frito-Lay has been able to connect with various colleagues to benchmark performance.

“We like to challenge ourselves to find out how good we can possibly be,” Cole said. “This benefits our own culture, as well as the entire American manufacturing culture.”

During the lengthy application and selection process for the NAME award, Cole worked closely with Northcutt at the corporate level to see how the Fayetteville site stacked up as a world-class manufacturing facility.

FIME sends four to five technical experts to assess the site in many different categories for a week. “They then give assessment and let you know how you perform and where you need to improve” Cole said. “Our processes, systems, teams, skills, and leadership hit this high level, so we were recognized for the award.”

Frito-Lay was then able to use the Fayetteville site as an example for its other facilities.

The objectives of the NAME Award, which was established in 1991 as a nonprofit, are to:

  • Increase the awareness of maintenance as a competitive edge in cost, quality, reliability, service, and equipment performance.
  • Identify industry leaders, along with potential or future leaders, and highlight best practices in maintenance management.
  • Share successful maintenance strategies and the benefits derived from implementation.
  • Understand the need for managing change and stages of development to achieve maintenance and reliability excellence.
  • Enable operational excellence.

Winners of the NAME award are site-specific. Some years there are no winners and some years there are two or three winners. It’s a rigorous process, but those who qualify earn the award.

226

2:01 am
March 18, 2016
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Make Sense of Electrical Signals

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Waveforms translate to crucial information about the health of your electrical/mechanical equipment systems. How do you read them?

Edited by Jane Alexander, Managing Editor

Devices that convert electrical power to mechanical power run the industrial world. Think pumps, compressors, motors, conveyors, and robots. Voltage signals that control these electro-mechanical devices are a critical but unseen force. The question is, how do you capture and  and anlyze that unseen force?

Oscilloscopes (or scopes) test and display voltage signals as waveforms, i.e., visual representations of the variation of voltage over time. The signals are plotted on a graph, which shows how the signal changes. The vertical (Y) access represents the voltage measurement and the horizontal (X) axis represents time.

According to the technical experts at Fluke Corp., Everett, WA, an oscilloscope graph can reveal important information, including:

  • voltage and current signals when equipment is operating as intended
  • signal anomalies
  • calculated frequency of an oscillating signal and any variations in frequency
  • whether a signal includes noise and changes to the noise.

Most of today’s oscilloscopes are digital—which enables more detailed, accurate signal measurements and fast calculations, data-storage capabilities, and automated analysis. Handheld digital oscilloscopes offer several advantages over benchtop models. They are battery operated, use electrically isolated floating inputs, and offer the advantage of embedded features that make oscilloscope usage relatively easy and accessible to a variety of workers.

Oscilloscope functions

Sampling. This is the process of converting a portion of an input signal into a number of discrete electrical values for the purpose of storage, processing, and display. The magnitude of each sampled point is equal to the amplitude of the input signal at the time the signal is sampled.

Fig. 1. Sampling and interpolation: Sampling is depicted by the dots while interpolation is shown as the black line.

Fig. 1. Sampling and interpolation: Sampling is depicted by the dots while interpolation
is shown as the black line.

The input waveform appears as a series of dots on the display (Fig. 1). If the dots are widely spaced and difficult to interpret as a waveform, they can be connected using a process called interpolation, which connects the dots with lines, or vectors.

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Fig. 2. Unknown trace adjusted for 3 to 6 vertical divisions.

 

Fig. 3. Unknown trace adjusted for 3 to 4 periods horizontally.

Fig. 3. Unknown trace adjusted for 3 to 4 periods horizontally.

 

Fig. 4. Trigger point is set to the 50% point but, due to the aberration on the leading edge in the second period, an additional trigger results in an unstable display.

Fig. 4. Trigger point is set to the 50% point but, due to the aberration on the leading edge in the second period, an additional trigger results in an unstable display.

 

Fig. 5. Trigger level adjusted to a unique repetitive position, outside the aberration on the second period.

Fig. 5. Trigger level adjusted to a unique repetitive position, outside the aberration on the second period.

Triggering. Trigger controls allow users to stabilize and display a repetitive waveform.

Edge triggering is the most common form of triggering. In this mode, the trigger level and slope controls provide the basic trigger-point definition. The slope control determines whether the trigger point is on the rising or the falling edge of a signal, and the level control determines where on the edge the trigger point occurs.

When working with complex signals such as a series of pulses, pulse-width triggering may be required. With this technique, the trigger-level setting and the next falling edge of the signal must occur within a specified time span. Once these two conditions are met, the oscilloscope triggers.

Single-shot triggering is a technique by which the oscilloscope displays a trace only when the input signal meets the set trigger conditions. Once the trigger conditions are met, the oscilloscope acquires and updates the display, and then freezes the display to hold the trace.

Fig. 6. If the two waveform components aren’t symmetrical, there may be a problem with the signal.

Fig. 6. If the two waveform components aren’t symmetrical, there may be a problem with the signal.

 

Fig. 7. Use cursors and the gridlines to evaluate the rise and fall times of the leading and trailing edges of a waveform.

Fig. 7. Use cursors and the gridlines to evaluate the rise and fall times of the leading and trailing edges of a waveform.

 

Fig. 8. Use horizontal cursors to identify amplitude fluctuations.

Fig. 8. Use horizontal cursors to identify amplitude fluctuations.

Getting a signal on the screen. The task of capturing and analyzing an unknown waveform on an oscilloscope can be routine, or it can seem like taking a shot in the dark. In many cases, taking a methodical approach to setting up the oscilloscope will capture a stable waveform or help you determine how the scope controls need to be set so that you can capture the waveform.

The traditional method of getting a signal to show properly on an oscilloscope is to manually adjust three key parameters to try to achieve an optimum set-point—often without knowing the correct variables:

  • vertical sensitivity: Adjust the vertical sensitivity so that the vertical amplitude spans approximately three to six divisions.
  • horizontal timing: Adjust the horizontal time per division so that there are three to four periods of the waveform across the width of the display.
  • trigger position: Set the trigger position to the 50% point of the vertical amplitude. Depending on the signal characteristics, this action may or may not result in a stable display.

These three parameters, when adjusted properly, show you a symmetrical “trace,” the line that connects the samples of the signal to create the visual depiction of the waveform. Waveforms can vary indefinitely from the most common sine wave that ideally mirrors between positive and negative on the zero axis point or a unidirectional square wave typical of electronic pulses, or even a shark-tooth form.

The manual setup method often requires tediously adjusting the settings to make the waveform readable in order to analyze it. In contrast, some modern oscilloscopes automate the process of digitizing the analog waveform to see a clear picture of the signal.

Fig. 9. Evaluate waveform DC offsets.

Fig. 9. Evaluate waveform DC offsets.

 

Fig. 10. Evaluate period-to-period time changes.

Fig. 10. Evaluate period-to-period time changes.

 

Fig. 11. A transient is occurring on the rising edge of a pulse.

Fig. 11. A transient is occurring on the rising edge of a pulse.

Understanding and reading waveforms

The majority of electronic waveforms encountered in the workplace are periodic and repetitive—and they conform to a known shape. As you train your eye to understand these waveforms, consider their varying dimensions:

  • Shape. Repetitive waveforms should be symmetrical. That is, if you were to print the traces and cut them in two like-sized pieces, the two sides should be identical. A point of difference could indicate a problem.
  • Rising and falling edges. Particularly with square waves and pulses, the rising or falling edges of the waveform can greatly affect the timing in digital circuits. It may be necessary to decrease the time per division to see the edge with greater resolution.
  • Amplitude. Verify that the level is within the circuit operating specifications. Also check for consistency, from one period to the next. Monitor the waveform for an extended period of time, watching for any changes in amplitude.
  • Amplitude offsets. DC-couple the input and determine where the ground reference marker is. Evaluate any DC offset and observe if this offset remains stable or fluctuates.
  • Periodic wave shape. Oscillators and other circuits will produce waveforms with constant repeating periods. Evaluate each period in time using cursors to spot inconsistencies.
Fig. 12. This figure shows ground reference-point measurement indicating induced random noise.

Fig. 12. This figure shows ground reference-point measurement indicating induced random noise.

 

Fig. 13. Excessive ringing occurring on the top of the square wave.

Fig. 13. Excessive ringing occurring on the top of the square wave.

 

Fig. 14. This pattern shows a momentary change of approximately 1.5 cycles in the amplitude of the sine wave.

Fig. 14. This pattern shows a momentary change of approximately 1.5 cycles in the amplitude of the sine wave.

 

Fig. 15. Performing a frequency measurement on a crystal oscillator that has been trend-plotted over an extended period can highlight the effect of drift caused by temperature changes and aging.

Fig. 15. Performing a frequency measurement on a crystal oscillator that has been trend-plotted over an extended period can highlight the effect of drift caused by temperature changes and aging.

Waveform anomalies

The following items reflect typical anomalies that may appear on a waveform, along with the typical sources of such anomalies.

  • Transients or glitches. When waveforms are derived from active devices such as transistors or switches, transients or other anomalies can result from timing errors, propagation delays, bad contacts, or other phenomena.
  • Noise. Noise can be caused by faulty power-supply circuits, circuit overdrive, crosstalk, or interference from adjacent cables. Or, noise can be induced externally from sources such as DC-DC converters, lighting systems, and high-energy electrical circuits.
  • Ringing. Ringing is seen mostly in digital circuits and in radar and pulse-width-modulation applications. It shows up at the transition from a rising or falling edge to a flat DC level. To check for excessive ringing, adjust the time base to give a clear depiction of the transitioning wave or pulse.
  • Momentary fluctuation. Momentary changes in the measured signal generally result from an external influence such as a sag or surge in the main voltage, activation of a high-powered device that is connected to the same electrical circuit, or a loose connection.
  • Drift. Manifested as minor changes in a signal’s voltage over time, drift can be tedious to diagnose. Often the change is so slow that it is difficult to detect. Temperature changes and aging can affect passive electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, and crystal oscillators. One problematic fault to diagnose is drift in a reference DC voltage supply or oscillator circuit. Often, the only solution is to monitor the measured value (VDC, Hz). MT

This article was edited using information supplied by technical experts at Fluke Corp.,  Everett, WA. For more information on this and other testing and measurement topics and technologies, visit fluke.com.

Diagnosing Problems and Troubleshooting

Technical experts at Fluke Corp., note that while successful troubleshooting is an art and a science, adopting a methodology and relying on the functionality of an advanced oscilloscope can greatly simplify the process.

The time-tested approach known as KGU (known good unit) comparison builds on a simple principle: An electronic system that is working properly exhibits predictable waveforms at critical nodes within its circuitry, and these waveforms can be captured and stored.

A reference library of waveforms of a KGU can be stored on some oscilloscopes or printed out to serve as a hard-copy reference document. If the system or an identical system later exhibits a fault or failure, waveforms can be captured from the faulty system—called the device under test (DUT)—and compared with their counterparts in the KGU. Consequently, the DUT can either be repaired or replaced.

CAUTION: For the correct and safe use of electrical test tools, it is essential for operators to follow safety procedures as outlined by their company and local safety agencies.

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3:54 pm
November 25, 2015
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Schneider Electric Furthers IIoT Evolution

“The Industrial Internet of Things [IIoT] is an evolution, not a revolution,” was the lead statement at the Schneider Electric SPS Nuremberg show in Nuremberg, Germany, Nov. 24, 2015. To support that claim, Clemens Blum, Schneider’s executive vice president of industry business, referred to the description of a Schneider 1999 Computerworld Smithsonian Award that talked about connected products and systems that operate as part of a larger system of systems and smart plants and machines, with embedded intelligence, that are integrated to enable the smart enterprise, improve efficiency and profitability, increase cyber security, and improve safety.

Marketing director of machine solutions, Rainer Beudert, followed with a discussion of smart machines and how they fit in the evolving IIoT. He described the Schneider definition of a smart machine as one that intuitively interacts with operators; assists with predictive maintenance; minimizes its environmental footprint; and provides modularity, connectivity, plug and work setup, self awareness, reusable design, digital mobility, and data management. It also makes available information about status, configuration, conditions, quality, and features.

To learn more about what Schneider is doing to further the IIoT evolution, view the press-conference video at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WI7JnKh3eV0

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6:04 pm
July 10, 2015
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Use These Keys to Achieve Effective Balancing

Proper installation procedures can eliminate a number of machinery defects and associated problems early. Aligning equipment to the correct tolerances and true targets and balancing it correctly at the time of installation—before the equipment is put into service—can eliminate the root cause of many bearing, rotor, seal, and coupling failures.

Proper installation procedures can eliminate a number of machinery defects and associated problems early. Aligning equipment to the correct tolerances and true targets and balancing it correctly at the time of installation—before the equipment is put into service—can eliminate the root cause of many bearing, rotor, seal, and coupling failures.

Looking for keys to successful dynamic balancing of your plant’s equipment? Use the following eight points from Ludeca Inc.’s (Doral, FL) Gary James. More important, include them as must-do elements in your balancing procedures.
—Jane Alexander, Managing Editor

— Inspect the equipment structure/mounts to make sure no cracks or loose bolts are present.

— Confirm that the belt on belt-driven equipment is in good condition and properly tensioned. (Remember that the second harmonic of a belt frequency can be very close to the rotational speed of the drive.)

— Inspect the rotating element for build-up and clean as necessary. (Remember that even a slight dust build-up can cause an unbalance.)

— If the equipment’s rotating element is a blower, count the number of blades. (Since correction weights must frequently be attached to blades, it may be best to use a fixed-location balancing method.)

— If equipment is down when you arrive, replace the reflective tape or attach new tape as required. (This ensures accurate phase data.)

— If possible, when acquiring your initial phase data, turn off the averaging function and monitor the data for a brief time to ensure stability. Doing this could identify potential problems.

— Document, document, document. That means keeping written notes on your findings with regard to:

  • phase and amplitude data
  • number of blades
  • correction locations
  • when weights were attached or removed
  • how much weight was attached or removed
  • sensor placement
  • tachometer placement.

— If the equipment is variable speed, with a variable-frequency drive (VFD) or DC drive, make sure the speed is repeatable to within 5% or less, run to run. MT

For more information on balancing and alignment issues, visit ludeca.com.

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2:52 pm
January 13, 2015
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Don’t Procrastinate, Innovate: ‘Data’ Should Not Be A Four-Letter Word

kennewmugBy Ken Bannister, CMRP, Contributing Editor

As W. Edwards Deming once admonished us, “In God we trust, all others must bring data!” Today, we have plenty of ways to deliver such data.

Thanks to advances in technology, we’ve seen a proliferation of inexpensive, data-hungry smart communication devices (i.e, phones, tablets and cameras) with the ability to directly access asset-management software data. Most recently, we have witnessed the advent of smart handheld instruments (i.e., thermographic-, vibration-, alignment- and electrical-measurement devices) and smart machine interfaces (i.e., Fault code directories, Building Automation Systems [BAS] and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition [SCADA] systems), many of which are creating their own trending databases in “the cloud.” Those cloud environments, in turn, make for easy access by maintainers, contracted resources and end-use clients.

In many cases, today’s smart handheld instruments and machine interfaces are interoperable, meaning they can communicate with one another and compound their collective data. This capability allows the average maintenance department to offer universal access to all of its related maintenance data and implement a data-informed decision-making approach to asset management. Yet, how many maintenance organizations have done so?

Overcoming the barriers

Deming, of course, was a statistician. He was accustomed to manipulating and making sense of large amounts of raw data. Universal access to raw data, however, is fairly new to most maintenance departments. Unfortunately, unless such data is meaningful, structured and managed carefully, the average user can be quickly overwhelmed. Thus, he/she might, in fact, reject the very data that could be used to focus and simplify a maintenance process.

In 2009, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development published “Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools—Teacher Access, Supports and Use.” The report reviewed how teachers— particularly those in districts identified as high data-users—understood and used their data to make informed decisions. Although the school districts had amassed an incredible amount of student-related data, around which it had provided teachers basic training and universal access, the study came back with some surprises, specifically:

  • Among teachers with access to data, only 33% felt capable of forming queries and accessing pertinent data.
  • Only 42% of teachers agreed that their school had been improved through the use of data.

The study found three main barriers to implementing a usable data-informed decision-making approach to teaching:

  1. Lack of training in how to use the data system or to derive instructional implications from system data (ability to query and make sense of the data).
  2. Lack of time to engage in data exploration and reflection (time to download and analyze, and prepare data for use).
  3. Weakness of the available data (not all data collected was useful or complete).

Despite those findings, the study also identified a positive and innovative approach to understanding and working with data that seemed worthy of modeling: a medium-sized school district that conducts annual “data digs” during which school-leadership teams collaboratively review, discuss and make sense of their student data. The teams use “Data-Driven Dialogue” to analyze and interpret their data. The process is adapted from Bruce Wellman and Laura Lipton’s 2004 paper, “Data-Driven Dialogue: A Facilitators Guide to Collaborative Enquiry”—and it’s easily adaptable for use with maintenance and asset-management data. The process is broken into four steps:

  1. Predict—Activate and engage interest in the data, access prior learning, name frames of reference, and establish common ground for dialogue.
  2. Explore—Interact with the data, look for patterns and trends, identify data facts and surprises, make observations without inference, identify questions raised by the data, and develop problem statements.
  3. Explain—Generate theories of causation, stay open to multiple possibilities, deepen thinking and identify “root causes” rather than symptoms, make inferences about data, and identify the additional data that will validate the theories of causation.
  4. Take Action—Move from problems to solutions based on validated theories of causation, identify goals and specific related action steps, and identify data to be monitored to determine whether action steps lead to the solution.

Making sense of your data

It’s clear from the Dept. of Education study noted above that others have encountered many of the same problems we in the maintenance world are beginning to face as plant data becomes more accessible. Still, it’s important for us to remember what Albert Einstein said: “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.”

In other words, we must beware of storing Meaningless Unrelated Data (MUD) in our databases—and be judicious in the data we collect to ensure it is meaningful for our reporting needs. A good starting point is to select a number of meaningful Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) required to run our business and determine what data is required to be sorted and reported on through the CMMS/EAM system or external database(s) to calculate the values of those indicators.

If maintenance personnel are to leverage and challenge data, they must first comprehend it and understand how it can be used to tell a story. Data is typically displayed in tables, graphs or printouts and can be complex. The maintainer or data-user needs to comprehend what’s in front of him or her. Performing “Data Digs” can be an excellent training and evaluation process that can be managed more easily by regular meetings of groups based on work discipline (mechanical, electrical, etc.).

Data analysis (also known as analytics) is used to apply a meaningful and relative visual appearance to data to communicate direction and insight. Accomplished through the use of graphs and charts, the displayed data should be interpretable immediately in a currency or language understood by the person(s)/department(s) receiving it. Consider the following example:

An improvement in an asset’s availability would be presented to a maintenance audience as a percentage of the maximum availability. The graph might show an increase from 92% availability to 97% by means of a bar or X-Y graph over a specific time period. Depicting that increase of availability for manufacturing or production staff, though, could be more meaningful and understandable when presented as an ability to increase the number of manufactured parts or throughput gain. Conversely, if this gain were to be communicated to the financial department, it would be best expressed in terms of additional $ capacity based on throughput capability. Translation: same data, three audiences, three currencies, which is in line with Einstein’s observation that “if you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it enough.”

The bottom line for readers of this magazine is that accurate data analysis and interpretation, particularly at the department-management level, may call for additional training on basic statistical concepts. When set up correctly, data provides the “Digital Ability To Analyze” a plant’s current state of maintenance and turn those revelations into quality data-informed decision-making and insight into the future. When complied, good data should be “Dependable, Actionable, Tangible and Available.” It’s not just a four-letter word. Good luck! MT

Ken Bannister is an asset-management consultant with Engtech Industries, Inc., who has specialized in asset-data-register development and CMMS implementation for over 26 years. He can be reached at 519-469-9173, or kbannister@engtechindustries.com.

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