Archive | Management

34

2:16 pm
May 18, 2017
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On The Floor: Reports from Ground Zero — Growing a Skilled Workforce

vocational student learns air conditioning repair from an experiBy Jane Alexander, Managing Editor

The cover and several pages of May’s Maintenance Technology might give you the impression that we had a common theme in mind: workforce matters. It wasn’t by design; it just worked out this way. The following MT Reader Panel question fit the theme nicely, though. Our Panelists began answering early and enthusiastically. The bad news, again, is that we couldn’t include all of their responses in the print issue. The good news is that we have this expanded version of the discussion here on maintenancetechnology.com.) Here’s the question:

Q: How were their organizations (or client/customer organizations) helping to develop, empower, and enable skilled workers for today’s and tomorrow’s industries? 

The following responses have, as always, been edited for clarity and brevity.

Industry Consultant, West…

Only a couple of my clients are addressing this issue. The ones who aren’t seem to think they’ll be able to entice employees away from companies that are actually finding a way to train the workforce. Development of workers seems to be the largest challenge at this time. Workers hired out of high school have few or no skills that translate to industry, other than moderate computer abilities. Workers hired with tech-school training seem to be hit and miss. Some have valuable skills, but lack work ethics; others have neither.

One client has created a tiered system that has some similarities to previous apprenticeship programs, but the tiers are self-paced, allowing more ambitious workers to advance (and make more money) more quickly. So far this has been successful, to a degree, but a stumbling block seems to be that Millennials do not work for goals that are two or three years away, but want results in one year or less. They also seem to feel that if another employee gets a raise, they deserve one as well, no matter if they’ve completed the same requirements as the other worker. While there are exceptions to this, the situation can lead to  friction in the workforce.

Most of my clients seem to be doing well when it comes to empowering and giving all workers a voice. And most appear to be enabling their workers much better than in the past. This helps retain the long-term employees they have.

Maintenance Engineer, Discrete Mfg, Midwest…

Our plant has begun retraining senior maintenance personnel to adapt to the ever-increasing automation of our production machinery. We’ve also started training some maintenance apprentices to begin refilling the pipeline to replace aging in-house staff (average age in our facility is around 50). We’re using the vocational school in our area on basic skills (welding, shop equipment use, power transmission, and electricity) for apprenticeship candidates and other technical specialists who want to participate. The program is going into its second year, and the only issue we’re working through is putting apprentices in situations where they can use their newly found knowledge in practical settings.

Maintenance Supervisor, Process Mfg, North America…  

Unfortunately, our organization is moving away from technical training for our maintenance people. It has imposed a limited budget for training across the corporation and is using it to train upper management on aspects of contract negotiations and employee interactions. I only have one technician scheduled for training on a PLC course. Nothing else has been approved. This is not an optimal situation, as technicians only buy into their jobs if they can be shown that the organization is interested in keeping equipment working and running at optimum production levels.

Reliability Specialist, Power Sector, Midwest…

Our organization participates in job fairs at the high school, trade school, and university levels. We are active members on curriculum boards at two trade schools in the state. We assist with training recommendations, and provide tools and equipment to the union-trades training facilities. Our organization has an in-house apprenticeship training program, heavily invested into continuous training of all personnel to maintain a highly skilled workforce and encourage training for future positions using in-house training and college tuition support. We also participate in high school-through-college job shadowing programs and internships.

Sr. Facilities Engineer, Discrete Mfg, Southeast…  

Our facility has become involved with Junior Achievement. A variety of our personnel spend predetermined time at local schools leading classes that focus on possible vocations, working as part of a team, and other things to help students understand more about what work will be like. We also hire summer interns, usually in some engineering position. We’ve had chemical, mechanical, and electrical majors.  This year we’ll have an environmental science student to help with some environmental updating. This will be good for us and offers good experience for the intern. The position is paid.

Plant Engineer, Institutional Facilities, Midwest…

We have a Civil Service System, and tradesmen/women must meet all the qualifications and experience before being interviewed. The system has drawbacks, but as a whole, our hires are very qualified. It also allows people to move to other positions by attending classes or studying until they meet the qualifications for a higher position. Some employees who started out as janitors later became laborers, then stationary firemen/women, then building engineers, even an assistant chief engineer.

Technical Supervisor, Public Utility, West…

This is a real problem for the hydro and power-generation industry. We’ve not had good luck “stealing” experienced journey-level employees from other utilities lately. We’re part of a state system, and drastic reductions in various benefits over the past decade have removed the incentive for such personnel to “jump ship” and join our organization.

We’ve developed detailed system descriptions of our project, so if we bring in personnel from the non-power industry, they have a training road map/program with lot of hands-on training.

Our experience with a somewhat expensive service that puts former military personnel into industry jobs has been varied. We’ve been bringing in student interns to support our engineering departments for several years, and have hired one full-time.

Industry Consultant, International…

Concerning this question, I have seen both short- and long-term approaches among my clients. As an example, one operation has chosen to contract out skill sets and hold down costs with a minimum of on-site crafts personnel or crafts-qualified supervisors. This tends to be a bit short-sighted but is “OK” short term.

Those taking more of a long-term approach include a major utility that has chosen to partner with local crafts unions such as IBEW, IAM, Iron Workers, etc., to develop an in-house apprenticeship program. Training is done at the local union facility for one-half day and on the company site the rest of the time, with company crafts Journeymen as mentors. Progress is monitored every six months in a formal joint union and company meeting, and raises are given for progress to a four-year Journeyman status. This type of program, which is administered by HR, works well for companies already operating in a union environment. (Non-union operations I’ve worked with have set up up similar in-house training with local colleges and trade schools, sometimes using local union Journeymen as instructors or evaluators.)

In Canada, I’ve seen several  companies join together with the First Nations Reservation groups to set up specialized schools that provide not only training in  crafts along typical apprenticeship lines, but also for special or heavy-equipment operators, miners, and staff clerical/medical personnel. These companies usually have requirements to staff with as many locals as possible. To meet this requirement, local training and personnel/crafts development is a must. In some of these remote locations, outside sourcing of competent Journeymen is difficult.

Based on personal observations, I’ve found that HR and Operations/Maintenance Management working in conjunction with local craft unions and in-house Journeymen as mentors tend to produce the best and most likely to “stay” new craftsmen, These people are already in the company and are familiar and “at home” with their local environment.

Engineer, Process Mfg, Southeast…

Our plant is a founding member of [a not-for-profit regional workforce-development alliance]. The organization engages in activities to improve the overall training and skill level of [the region’s] craft persons and trade persons and promote consistent application of skill standards in the industrial and contractor workforce. It also works to provide, develop, and implement training programs to ensure consistent skill-level designations for trade persons.   Partnering with educational institutions and others, it provides information and assistance with career and skills assessments, training programs, certification standards, and accepted credentials for skilled crafts persons and trades persons. Coordinating with local industry and employers, it assesses present and future needs for skilled workers and develops and implements initiatives that alleviate shortages.

Industry Consultant, International…

Concerning this question, I have seen both short- and long-term approaches among my clients. As an example, one operation has chosen to contract out skill sets and hold down costs with a minimum of on-site crafts personnel or crafts-qualified supervisors. This tends to be a bit short-sighted but is “OK” short term.

Those taking more of a long-term approach include a major utility that has chosen to partner with local crafts unions such as IBEW, IAM, Iron Workers, etc., to develop an in-house apprenticeship program. Training is done at the local union facility for one-half day and on the company site the rest of the time, with company crafts Journeymen as mentors. Progress is monitored every six months in a formal joint union and company meeting, and raises are given for progress to a four-year Journeyman status. This type of program, which is administered by HR, works well for companies already operating in a union environment. (Non-union operations I’ve worked with have set up up similar in-house training with local colleges and trade schools, sometimes using local union Journeymen as instructors or evaluators.)

In Canada, I’ve seen several  companies join together with the First Nations Reservation groups to set up specialized schools that provide not only training in  crafts along typical apprenticeship lines, but also for special or heavy-equipment operators, miners, and staff clerical/medical personnel. These companies usually have requirements to staff with as many locals as possible. To meet this requirement, local training and personnel/crafts development is a must. In some of these remote locations, outside sourcing of competent Journeymen is difficult.

Based on personal observations, I’ve found that HR and Operations/Maintenance Management working in conjunction with local craft unions and in-house Journeymen as mentors tend to produce the best and “most likely to stay” new craftsmen. People trained this way are already in the company and are familiar and “at home” with their local environment. MT

If you’re interested in becoming an MT Reader Panelist, email jalexander@maintenancetechnology.com.

Tip of the Month | May 2017

“Once you’ve tightened a bolt to the correct torque rating, use colored nail polish to paint a straight line across its head and onto the bolted equipment. If this straight line ever appears broken, it’s an indicator that the bolt has loosened. This extremely inexpensive vibration-monitoring technique provides an important visual cue that operators can easily detect during daily checks and, in turn, leads to fast maintenance response.”

— Tipster: Ken Bannister, MEch Eng (UK), CMRP, MLE, Contributing Editor

What about you?
Tips and tricks that you use in your work could be value-added news to other reliability and maintenance pros. Let us help you share them. 

Email your favorites to MTTipster@maintenancetechnology.com. Who knows? Like this month’s featured tipster, you might see your submission(s) highlighted in this space. (Anyone can play. You don’t need to be an MT Reader Panelist.)

36

8:25 pm
May 15, 2017
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Uptime: Engage the New Workforce

bobmugnewBy Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

I’m worried that we’re not effectively engaging younger, newer employees in our reliability-improvement initiatives,” lamented a participant in one of my workshops. “How should we be working with them?”

That type of concern and question is becoming more common in today’s older industrial facilities—and for good reason. The ways we employed, trained, and engaged previous generations of employees won’t necessarily work going forward. Now is the time to re-tool our approaches. Here are some insights into those generations and how to engage their members in the workplace.

The divide

Think about the differences in your family, i.e., your grandparents, parents, yourself, and your children. Each generation is different, based on experiences with different technologies, socio-economic conditions, educational approaches, and politics, among other things. Let’s look at four generations and various factors that formed their lives:

• Matures (born before 1945): Strong family and community ties, WWII and Pearl Harbor, post-WWII economic boom, manned space flight.

• Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964): Cold War, Civil Rights movement, Vietnam War, political assassinations, feminist movement.

• Gen X (born between 1965 and 1977): Disintegrating families, unemployment, advent of personal computers and the Internet, Space Shuttle explosion, end of the Cold War, Berlin Wall destruction, Gulf Wars.

• Gen Y, aka “Millennials” (born between 1977 and 2000): Oklahoma City bombing, 9-11 terrorist attacks, growth of school violence, global warming, increasing divorce rates, advent of smart phones and other technologies, everybody gets a trophy.

Millennials learn, and in turn, approach work much differently than past generations.

Millennials learn, and in turn, approach work much differently than past generations.

The formative years

Major generational events combine with situations in an individual’s formative years to influence their behaviors, beliefs, expectations, and interests. During the late 1960s and into the 1970s, Dr. Morris Massey described three major life-shaping periods:

• Imprint Period (birth to 7 years of age): We absorb everything, accepting much of it as true, especially coming from our parents. The sense of right and wrong, good and bad is learned here.

• Modeling Period (between 8 and 13 years): We copy people, primarily our parents, and other people who impress us (community leaders and teachers, for example). We try different things to see how we feel about them.

• Socialization Period (between 13 and 21): We tend to look for ways to depart from our earlier programming and are significantly influenced by our peers. Media (social-media) messages, especially those that seem compatible with peer-group values, have a major influence.

The challenge in a workplace is how to effectively engage (and value) inherent generational differences, despite the diverse, life-shaping events and experiences of peoples’ formative years.

Focusing on Millennials

Get ready. Millennials will make up 75% of the workforce by 2025, preceded by record departures of seasoned, skilled workers. The bad news is Millennials often lack the skills, knowledge, and experiences employers are seeking in replacements for their disappearing skilled personnel. While more people may make up the labor pool, it’s the skills shortages (skills gaps) that will prevent them from securing employment. According to a 2015 report titled “The Skills Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: 2015 and Beyond,” from Deloitte (deloitte.com, New York) and The Manufacturing Institute (themanufacturinginstitute.org, Washington), in the next decade, nearly 3.5-million manufacturing jobs will likely need to be filled. Because of the skills gap, 2 million of those jobs are expected to remain open.

Knowledge transfer and reliable training processes are rapidly becoming a more-than-compelling need in many business sectors. The traditional training model, however, is mostly inefficient, ineffective, and inconsistent with how Millennials learn. Still, the task at hand involves more than training them—it’s engaging them.

Millennial expert Christine Hassler offers some pointers on how to work with and benefit from this generation. It starts with understanding that members of this group are typically over-parented, self-expressive, optimistic, globally oriented, and wanting to make a difference. They tend to be multi-taskers, entrepreneurial thinkers who value freedom and flexibility, but believe that organizations rarely make use of their skills. According to Hassler, prospective employers can leverage these characteristics by offering what these job seekers want most:

• diverse opportunities based on individuality and creativity
• fair compensation for work that has a purpose
• a great place to work, i.e., fun and ethical
• a sense of belonging and social engagement flexibility.

Attracting Millennials can be enhanced by employers that:

• invest in technology and social media
• have a story to tell, a brand
• leverage current Millennial employees in recruiting
• embrace social and environmentally conscious practices
• re-invent the workplace environment
• address how their goals can be achieved by working here.

Hiring Millennials may require employers to overhaul their practices and:

• recruit, hire, and train for skills mastery
• look for leaders, out-of-the box thinkers, and optimists
• deploy creative application and interview processes
• upgrade employee orientation and on-boarding programs
• include Millennials in interview and selection processes.

Retaining newly hired Millennial employees can be improved by employers that try to:

• make the first day unforgettable
• offer feedback, flexibility, and transparency
• create a fun workplace with a sense of purpose.

Managing Millennials must be accomplished by leveraging their expectations:

• provide frequent feedback
• provide clear expectations with accountability
• coach, rather than direct (see the following “Situational Leadership” model)
• challenge and empower them
• inspire them (be a strategic and aspirational thinker)
• add the human element
• be open and transparent
• show respect for all people at all levels
• get to know employees on a personal level
• conduct weekly check-in
• provide interpersonal training and personal development
• provide technology platforms for feedback sharing.

Developing Millennials into leaders must go beyond traditional programs and begin early in their employment through:

• cross-functional expertise and rotational learning
• apprenticeship models with assigned mentors
• involvement with “high-ranking” executives
• intrapreneurship (defined as workplace innovation)
• ongoing training and personal development
• formal knowledge-transfer processes
• connection to the bigger “why” (beyond “what” and “how”).

Engagement is ‘situational’

Leading and empowering Millennials is where the proven principles of Ken Blanchard’s “Situational Leadership” framework for employee development can come into play. Adapting our leadership styles to fit individual employee needs will be one of the most important methods you can use to engage Millennial employees.

According to Blanchard, the four sequential leadership styles in the Situational Leadership model include directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. These leadership styles are aligned with four sequential stages of individual employee development:

• low competence/high commitment
• some competence/low commitment
• higher competence and/or variable commitment
• high competence/high commitment.

Efforts to empower and engage employees, especially Millennials, must build on what motivates them. How we lead them to be productive members of an organization is an integral part of that motivation.  MT

References:

Dr. Morris Massey, What You Are is Where You Were When, 1986 video program, Enterprise Media, MorrisMassey.com.

Christine Hassler, “Bridging the Generational Divide Attracting, Engaging, and Managing a Multi-Generational Workforce” (keynote), millennialexpert.com.

“Situational Leadership” training program, The Ken Blanchard Companies, KenBlanchard.com.

Bob Williamson, CMRP, CPMM, and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side” of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Contact him at  RobertMW2@cs.com.

58

7:43 pm
May 15, 2017
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SAP Tips and Tricks: Manage Assets with Refurbishment Order

By Kristina Gordon, DuPont

randmWhen assets need to be refurbished or fabricated, SAP offers an order type called a Refurbishment Order. The purpose of this order is to assist sending the item to a repair shop, either on or off site; having that asset repaired or fabricated; and then receiving it back into inventory at a different valuation or cost. The new store-room inventory value will be based on the cost charged to the refurbishment work order.

Name a work order type by whatever nomenclature your company uses. In this example, we will call the refurbishment work order type WO10. When creating and executing a refurbishment work order, follow these steps from creation to closure. Note that some of the transaction codes used here are finance- and costing-based. Such steps may be designated only by your finance department.

1. Set up transaction IW81 (standard SAP transaction code for refurbishment):

1704rmcsap01p

2. Fill in the needed information (note that the screen layout looks very different from a work order created in IW31):

1704rmcsap02p

3. Create the operation steps for internal labor and a line with your PO information for outside services:

1704rmcsap03p

4. Add the asset/material to the work-order components, then release and save the order:

1704rmcsap04p

5. Once work is completed and the asset/material is ready to be returned into inventory, confirm the internal labor hours to the work order that was added in step 3, using transaction IW41.

6. Add actual overhead to the work order using transaction KG12:

1704rmcsap05p

7. After time confirmations are completed and material movements have been made, TECO the work order.

8. Using Transaction IW8W, return the material back to inventory.

9. It is now time to financially settle the work order. This will also change the value of the material in inventory (Note that this screen looks very similar to the overhead calculation screen in KG12):

1704rmcsap06p

Creating and executing a refurbishment order is more labor-intensive than normal work-order types. However, refurbishment orders will keep your inventory value correct and maintain complete tracking and history of the work performed on the asset. MT

Kristina Gordon is SAP PM Leader, DuPont Protective Solutions Business, and SAP WMP Champion, Spruance Site, Richmond, VA. If you have SAP questions, send them to editors@maintenancetechnology.com and we’ll forward them to Kristina.

48

5:48 pm
May 15, 2017
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Get Your Cybersecurity Off the Ground

Hacker HackerangriffImplementing cybersecurity defenses for industrial-control systems can seem intimidating. The right initial actions are crucial. Alexandre Peixoto, cybersecurity expert for the DeltaV distributed-control system from Emerson (Round Rock, TX, emerson.com), urges users to look closely at these seven key areas. They can offer a good defense-in-depth strategy in the short term:

• Workstation hardening: Ensure that the workstation configuration meets security policies.
• User-account management: Maintain unique user accounts and password-change routines.
• Patch/security management: Keep hardware and software up to date.
• Physical security/perimeter protection: Limit physical and electronic access to system networks.
• Security monitoring/risk assessment: Develop security policies and system-monitoring behavior.
• Data management: Develop guidelines for secure data creation, transmission, storage, and destruction.
• Network security: Ensure that system networks are properly segregated and protected.

For organizations wanting to get new cybersecurity programs off the ground fast, Peixoto recommends starting with the first three items on this list. Inexpensive to implement, they typically can be completed in-house.

—Jane Alexander, Managing Editor

randmWorkstation hardening

Workstations are usually the entry points to isolated networks. New installations run at peak security but, over time, changes intended for temporary use, such as a remote access or use of removable media, are not reversed. These changes increase the system’s attack surface, especially if the allowed remote connections aren’t monitored or periodically audited.

Cybersecurity isn’t a set-and-forget type of initiative. Operations should monitor and maintain all workstations using the initial configuration as a baseline. System administrators should keep records of their system’s security policies and develop policy guidelines surrounding what can and cannot be changed.

Dedicated applications are available to help audit essential files and services running on each control-system workstation. These applications can be valuable tools in assessing cyber-threats within an industrial control-system environment.

User-account management

Individual user accounts with appropriate permissions should be part of every organization’s security policy. Properly assigning user permissions also has a strong impact on cybersecurity. While it may seem easier to give every user high privilege access to the system, this approach increases the impact of a cyberattack, no matter which account is stolen. Developing and applying guidelines for user accounts is the first step, but setting a strategy for account management, based on those guidelines, is key to long-term control-system cybersecurity support.

Strict enforcement of password complexity and change routines will make it harder for unauthorized users to gain access using stolen passwords or brute-force attacks. A best practice is for each user to have a unique username and password for the control system that is distinct from those they use on enterprise business systems.

Patch/security management

Properly maintaining a control system means keeping hardware and software up to date. When a system is unpatched or outdated, the organization is exposed to cyberattacks.

Organizations need to keep track of operating system updates, antivirus updates, and software hotfixes that are available for their systems and regularly apply these patches. Unpatched systems are vulnerable to cyberattacks that are based on known vulnerabilities. Appropriate, timely patch management can be accomplished internally or by using support programs available from automation-system vendors.

Bottom line

Not only is it easy to overlook cybersecurity, it’s difficult for plants to justify allocating resources for it if they’ve never been attacked (or have been, but don’t know it). Unfortunately, when security vulnerabilities are exploited, the costs required to recover a system are high and the impact widespread.

Focusing on the right first steps today can help secure your industrial-control system and develop an internal cybersecurity posture in your organization. MT

For more information on cybersecurity, go to emerson.com/cybersecuritymanagement.

136

5:06 pm
May 15, 2017
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Training Today’s Workforce for Tomorrow’s Needs

Just as the Internet of Things (Iot) is transforming industrial operations, maintenance roles are also being transformed.

Just as the Internet of Things (Iot) is transforming industrial operations, maintenance roles are also being transformed.

With equipment and building systems growing smarter, those who operate and maintain them must do likewise.

By Jane Alexander, Managing Editor

Although we’ve heard that the Internet of Things (IoT) is poised to transform the industry, in some cases, it already has. Today, more and more businesses are implementing IoT-enabled equipment and generating an ever-growing influx of data that has the potential to transform their operations. For industry applications, the value of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is expected to continue to grow at an astounding rate. While that should come as no surprise, there is one important caveat.

According to Mohamed Shishani of Schneider Electric’s Building & IT Business (Nashville, TN, schneider-electric.us), IoT-driven data can help reduce reactive maintenance, boost preventive problem solving, and improve efficiency and productivity, but only when the workforce is prepared to use the insights to make better decisions. “It’s imperative,” he stated, “that plant operators and facility managers ensure their electrical-maintenance personnel are trained and prepared to operate and apply IoT-driven data to improve operational performance. If not, they’ll surely be left behind.”

As Schneider Electric’s “IoT 2020 Business Report” noted, operational and management professionals in buildings, factories, global supply chains, and cities must be able to turn data into actionable insights about the efficiency of machines or production lines. Collecting and analyzing this operational intelligence can help the workforce improve business strategies that drive performance and sustainability.

Shishani reports that industry is already seeing the effects of an internet-connected, internet-dependent world—and that business leaders are paying close attention to its impact on their operations. In fact, based on Schneider Electric’s research, 70% of decision makers have seen the business value of IoT through its ability to create new opportunities for their companies, improve the efficiency of their businesses, and deliver long-term business benefits.

‘Smart’ systems require a smarter workforce

Shishani pointed to circuit breakers as a good example of evolving technology. As he described the situation, “Once upon a time, a circuit breaker was just a circuit breaker, an innocuous black box that was rarely considered in the day-to-day operations of a plant or facility. Today, though, IoT-enabled circuit breakers can provide real-time and historical trending data, allowing facility managers to easily monitor their plant or building’s electrical systems.”

These smart systems provide improved visibility into operations and allow users to control everything from specific lines of equipment to the entire industrial process, locally and remotely. Proactive maintenance, based on predictive decision making, lets personnel troubleshoot and remedy issues in real time, before operations are affected. That approach reduces system downtime and opens the doors for more regularly scheduled preventive maintenance.

The collected data can provide a wealth of useful information, including circuit-breaker status, energy use, and important system notifications. With just a simple Internet connection, the information is readily available on an operator’s computer screen. Cloud-based solutions provide personnel with access to data through apps on their mobile devices, making the decision-making process even faster and more reliable than is possible with conventional systems.

Note that while IoT-enabled tools such as these offer great potential to improve a plant’s productivity, they can only be maximized if personnel are able to properly use them. As plants and facilities evolve to require constant monitoring, maintenance staff must be trained to use stationary and mobile equipment. Decisions, in turn, can be made anytime and anywhere, saving time and eliminating the need for on-site visits.

IoT-enabled-tool training

With data becoming more useful, traditional methods of performing work may no longer be relevant. The increase in data, in general, suggests the volume of it specific to electrical systems is likely to increase as well. Furthermore, just as the IoT is transforming industrial operations, the role of maintenance personnel is also being transformed.

Consider, for example, building systems that control a plant’s power, automation, safety, communication, and security. According to Shishani, the fact that such systems are becoming more integrated means electrical contractors and maintenance technicians are becoming even more pertinent to the industrial system. In his view, as their roles and responsibilities continue to expand and involve functions beyond traditional electrical work, they should be encouraged to:

• Use new skills to gather and analyze data to ensure decisions are made quickly and accurately.
• Offer solutions that take into account the energy usage of a  particular process or facility to ensure energy efficiency and sustainable operations.
• Embrace the transformation of their role as IIoT-solutions providers by expanding their knowledge of IoT and how to use the resulting data.

In light of the aging workforce, industries will be challenged to engage personnel in new technologies while training newcomers—who most likely will be Millennials—to build on existing digital skills and apply them to a new environment that is always on, constantly connected, and moving quickly.

“Whether IoT will drastically reshape the industry can no longer be questioned,” Shishani explained. “The workforce must be surrounded by the right tools and training to be able to harness all the possibilities IoT has to offer.” MT

Mohamed Shishani is go-to-market strategy and launch manager for Schneider Electric’s Building & IT Business. For more information, visit schneider-electric.us.

Tools for Success

By Mohamed Shishani, Schneider Electric

Training personnel to interpret the influx of data produced by IoT technology is critical to ensure businesses are prepared for an evolving industry. As younger workers enter the workforce, businesses must evolve with the types of resources they are providing their employees. With the right training and digital tools, companies can set them up for success.

The first step is to provide employees with the knowledge they need—right at their fingertips. In the age of IoT, giving the workforce access to the right information when, where, and how it’s needed will be paramount to the entire operation’s success. Businesses are using innovative digital tools to make sure information is readily available and easily accessible. With online portals, personnel will have access to product information, training, and technical support tools designed to make the information-gathering process easier so they can get back to their jobs more quickly. Through a combination of apprentice libraries, videos, interactive technical support, training materials and up-to-date information on the latest codes and standards, the workforce will be equipped with all of the information needed to generate informed operational decisions.

In addition, design and/or implement the right types of programs to train and develop your workforce. For businesses with an eye on IoT, training programs should be deployed to keep employees on their game. It’s important that new employees be trained to leverage tools to help them interpret data. An emphasis should also be placed on providing existing employees with training on new technologies to ensure they are able to complete their jobs with the efficiency needed to keep up with IoT technology.

Finally, incorporate safety into ongoing training. When a job involves electrical equipment, it’s imperative that safety be part of the ongoing discussion. Safe electrical practices, such as how to approach a tripped circuit breaker and how to mitigate arc-flash hazards, can be the difference between a near-miss incident and harmful electrical accident. Emergency response and CPR training are also extremely relevant and important for plant and facility operations employees. OSHA and other regulatory agencies require emergency-response training for specific occupations every one to
two years.

98

4:47 pm
May 15, 2017
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Beware Self-Inflicted Reliability Problems

modern manufacturing industry and mechanization concept, abstrac

Think of this expert advice as a reality check for your operations and take action accordingly.

By Jane Alexander, Managing Editor

The root cause of poor reliability can come from many sources, including aging plant assets, poor design decisions, even disregard for reliability by those who built and/or installed the equipment. Then, there are the many other reasons outside of your control that could be contributing to the reliability problems your site is experiencing today. While any reliability-improvement initiative will require that all of those issues be addressed, according to Jason Tranter of Mobius Institute (mobiusinstitute.com, Bainbridge Island, WA), operations must first deal with those of the “self-inflicted” variety.

Don’t think you have self-inflicted reliability problems? Tranter begs to differ. It’s a bitter pill to swallow, but yes, you do,” he said. “That’s good news, though, since it is much easier to deal with the self-inflicted root causes than the inherent reliability problems you adopted.”

What does Tranter mean by self-inflicted? To determine why equipment fails prematurely and/or why you experience slowdowns, safety incidences, or quality problems, he explained that personnel could go through a detailed reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) analysis process, or perform root-cause failure analysis (RCFA) after each failure occurs. “Better yet”, he said, “they can learn from the experience gained at thousands of plants around the world and consider some of the most common root causes of equipment failure.”

Focusing on rotating equipment, Tranter outlined those types of problems as follows, starting with the most obvious and working backward to their root causes.

#3. Cause of Reliability Problems: Imperfect operating and maintenance practices

Most of the equipment in a plant or facility, i.e. motors, pumps, fans, compressors, and turbines, is designed to run for many, many years without unplanned downtime. While those types of assets may incorporate some components that wear out, many items, such as bearings and gears, are designed to provide years of trouble-free operation. This, however, assumes that all of the parts were installed correctly, the components are precision aligned, the bearings and gears are correctly lubricated, all fasteners are tightened to the correct torque, there is no resonance, belts are tightened to the correct tension, and the rotors are precision balanced.

It also assumes that the equipment is operated as designed. Pumps, for example, should be operated at their best efficiency points (BEPs). “If you are unsure these types of situations are occurring,” Tranter cautioned, “then they almost certainly are.” He pointed to several areas where seemingly minor issues could be causing serious problems:

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Just 5/60th of a degree of angular misalignment can cut bearing life in half. (Reference: Harris, Tedric A., A Rolling Bearing Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.)

Shaft alignment. When two shafts are “collinear” (no angle or offset between their centerlines) it reduces stress on the bearings, couplings, shafts, and the rest of the machine components. Research has revealed that just 5/60th of a degree of angular misalignment can cut bearing life in half (see Fig. 1).

If you use laser alignment with appropriate tolerances, and you remove soft foot, then this will not be a source of poor reliability. By the way, just because your vibration analyst does not detect misalignment does not mean that your machines are precision aligned.

The life of a bearing is inversely proportional to the cube of the load.

The life of a bearing is inversely proportional to the cube of the load.

Balancing. When you balance to ISO 1940 grade G 1.0, the cyclical forces on the bearings, shaft, and structure are minimized and you gain reliability. If you do not have a balancing standard, then unbalance will be a root cause of failure. If you wait until the unbalance generates “high” vibration, then you will have reduced the life of the equipment and supporting structure. That’s because the life of a bearing is inversely proportional to the cube of the load (see Fig. 2). Tranter noted that, while this calculation sounds very complicated, it basically means that if you double the load, a bearing’s life will be reduced to an eighth (23).

Tiny 3-µm particles cause more damage than 40-µm and 10-µm particles (Reference: A Study by Dr. P. B. McPherson)

Tiny 3-µm particles cause more damage than 40-µm and 10-µm particles (Reference: A Study by Dr. P. B. McPherson)

Lubrication. When you correctly lubricate bearings and gears, whether with grease or oil, and that lubricant is free of contaminants, you will achieve maximum life. But if bearings are not adequately greased, their life will be reduced. If the oil is contaminated, the viscosity is incorrect, or additives are depleted, then the life of gears and bearings will be greatly reduced.

Research was performed to determine which particles caused the greatest damage. It wasn’t the 40-µm particles or the 10-µm particles, it was the tiny 3-µm particles (see Fig. 3).

By the time you can see water in oil, the life of the bearing has been halved.

By the time you can see water in oil, the life of the bearing has been halved.

According to Tranter, personnel may think that if they can’t see water in oil then the oil must be fine. Sadly, that is not correct (see Fig. 4). By the time water can be seen in the oil, the life of the bearing has been halved. “We could continue the discussion,” he said, “but suffice it to say that there is a great deal we can do to avoid problems that arise due to imperfect maintenance and operating practices.”

#2. Cause of Reliability Problems: Desire and organizational culture

It’s one thing to understand all of the above root causes. “It’s another,” Tranter observed, “to obtain approval to establish standards and purchase all of the tools, such as laser-alignment systems, that enable technicians and operators to do their jobs correctly. But owning the tools and having standard operating procedures won’t solve the problem.” As he put it, the problem will only be solved when technicians and operators want to use those tools properly and are given the time and encouragement to do so.

Thus, the issue of “desire” and its link to organizational culture must be considered as a root cause of self-inflicted reliability problems and addressed accordingly.

#1. Cause of Reliability Problems: Inadequate management support

Tranter believes a strong case could be made that the root cause of all failures derives from lack of senior-management support for a culture of reliability. Without their support it will be impossible to change the culture and thus change behavior.

“Think about initiatives to improve safety at your plant,” he said. “If senior management didn’t support them, would those initiatives have been successful? Senior-management support leads to people being employed in safety roles, investment in training and tools, and posting of signage that provides warning and feedback on progress, among other things. It also keeps sites from cutting corners that would risk safety, and it makes it clear how important safety is to the future of the organization.”

According to Tranter, the type of management support that drives safety at a site needs to be leveraged to drive reliability improvement. “Everyone within the organization,” he said, “needs to understand that reliability is critically important to the organization and that senior management will stand strong when shortcuts that compromise reliability are available.” Without adequate senior management support, he concluded, meaningful culture change won’t occur, and reliability-improvement initiatives won’t be able to eliminate self-inflicted root causes of problems. MT

Jason Tranter, BE (Hons), CMRP, VA-IV is CEO and founder of Mobius Institute (Balnarring, Victoria, Australia, and Bainbridge Island, WA). For more information on this topic and other reliability issues, including vibration monitoring and training and certification of vibration analysts, contact him at jason@mobiusinstitute.com, or visit mobiusinstitute.com.

Where Does Condition Monitoring Fit?

By Jason Tranter, Mobius Institute

Condition monitoring plays several crucial roles in the battle against self-inflicted reliability problems. For example, providing an early warning of impending problems minimizes the impact of premature failure, and detecting and eliminating the root causes ensures that we achieve the greatest life and value from our precious assets.

Many plant personnel, however, believe that if they have a condition-monitoring program in place, equipment reliability will be optimized. That, unfortunately, is not true.

Most detected faults are avoidable. While it is important to get an early warning, it is much more important to avoid the problem in the first place. Condition monitoring can help by detecting the root causes of failure, including misalignment, unbalance, lubrication issues, and looseness, among others. If those problems are cost-effectively nipped in the bud, then we avoid future failures.

Another way condition monitoring plays a role in plants is in acceptance testing. As part of the purchase agreement, condition-monitoring specialists can perform tests to ensure the new or overhauled equipment is “fit for purpose.”

You may be surprised at how many problems you actually bring into your plant.

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2:29 pm
May 15, 2017
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Final Thought: Back to Basics For a Better Future

klausblacheBy Dr. Klaus M. Blache, Univ. of Tennessee, Reliability & Maintainability Center

During a trip to Europe, several years ago, I visited the German Museum of Science and Technology in Munich (the largest museum of this type in the world). While there, I marveled, as many do, at the machinery and equipment that people have designed and built without the help of modern technology. Consider the many windmills that used to be so prevalent across the European landscape

According to Low-Tech Magazine (Barcelona, lowtechmagazine.com), at their peak, the total number of wind-powered mills in Europe was 200,000. The Netherlands alone is reported to have had 9,000 of them by 1850. Based on a capacity of about 50-hp each, that calculates out as roughly 450,000 hp to mill grain, pump water, and support other industrial uses.

The craftsmen of those early, engineered wonders were driven to do great work, mostly because their livelihoods depended on it. Today is not that different. For example, as stated in a Feb. 2015 Los Angeles Times article, The Boston Consulting Group (Boston, bcg.com) predicted that investment in industrial robots would grow 10% a year in the world’s 25-biggest export nations through 2025, up from what, at the time, was said to be 2% to 3% annual growth.

Those numbers reflect just one of many such projections that popular news outlets seem to continuously share. Regardless of automation’s actual rate of growth in industry, for purposes of reliability and maintenance (R&M), the reality is that our skilled trades need more technical knowledge to understand wireless controls, computer interfaces, machine learning with predictive technologies, big data, and digital connectivity.

A lot can be accomplished right now. It starts with getting better at doing the basics well with proven best practices. Much of this falls into the category of precision maintenance.

My 2016 study comparing the savings resulting from precision-maintenance training with those from general-maintenance training showed that the benefits of applied precision maintenance were greater by a factor of four. Precision-maintenance training teaches trades and plant-floor engineers essential manufacturing skills. Examples of such skills include asset care and operation and machine assembly and installation, plus hands-on knowledge of precision alignment, pumps and pumping systems, gearboxes, and root-cause failure analysis.

Maintenance best practices will continue to be key to manufacturing competitiveness.

Maintenance best practices will continue to be key to manufacturing competitiveness.

The payback

You recognize a skilled craftsman when you see one at work. It’s evident in how he or she takes care of every detail, checks and rechecks the work, and shows pride in doing something right the first time, every time. Sadly, for reasons such as time pressure, lack of training, and organizational culture, among others, there’s been a decline in craftsmanship over the years. I am, though, of the opinion that most personnel, if given the opportunity and an enabled work environment, want to do the best job possible. At the same time, the generally accepted number for human error in maintenance issues is greater than 50%. A thorough comprehension and application of precision maintenance can reduce that percentage.

Of course, we first have to find adequate numbers of qualified technical workers. That’s a challenge. According to the Georgetown Univ. Center on Education and the Workforce (Washington, cew.georgtown.edu), by 2020, the United States will be short 5-million workers with the necessary technical certificates and credentials to succeed in high-growth, high-demand industries.

In 1991, the National Research Council (NRC, Washington, nationalacademies.org/nrc/) investigated U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. The subsequent report stated, “…the most cost-effective increase in U.S. manufacturing capacity may well be achievable through improved maintenance practices for existing equipment.”

Fast-forward 26 years: I believe this NRC statement holds true in 2017, and will continue to hold true in industries of the future. MT

Based in Knoxville, Klaus M. Blache is director of the Reliability & Maintainability Center at the Univ. of Tennessee, and a research professor in the College of Engineering. Contact him at kblache@utk.edu.

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2:22 pm
May 15, 2017
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Facilities vs. Factory Maintenance: Is There a Difference?

1705ffacilitymain

The common denominators boil down to assurance of reliable equipment assets and successful delivery of product.

By Jeffrey S. Nevenhoven, Life Cycle Engineering (LCE)

Among reliability and maintenance (R&M) professionals, there are many opinions about the universal or, more precisely, not-so-universal nature of maintenance practices. We’ve all heard statements along the lines of “this organization is different,” “we’re not like them,” or “those best practices won’t work or fit here.” One perception shared by many working in the R&M trenches is that maintenance in a batch-processing manufacturing environment is considerably different from maintenance in a continuous-flow operation. Another common perception is that maintenance principles and practices within the world of non-manufacturing facilities differ greatly from those in a manufacturing organization. But do they really?

At first glance, those strongly held beliefs might seem justifiable. Below the surface, however, the inner workings of any organization are quite similar when it comes to R&M requirements. Why, then, do so many people contend that reliability and maintenance are handled differently within distinct organization types? A number of factors drive those beliefs, including operating environment, regulatory requirements, organizational structure, leadership style, business priorities, expectations, and past practice. On top of that, many influences figure into the perception that something will or will not work within a specific organization.

In reality, physical assets are void of emotion and thought. Regardless of location or organization type, such assets need to be operated and maintained appropriately and, in turn, be available to deliver reliable service, as required. Without reliability, business risks increase, asset-performance levels decrease, and costs escalate.

So different, but so similar

Assets, systems, procedures, departments, and workers exist to produce a product or service, regardless of organization type. In the healthcare sector, the product is patient experience. Within amusement, entertainment, and sports markets, it is fan/customer experience. Within the travel industry, it’s passenger experience. Within the education system, the deliverable is student experience. And, within manufacturing, the product is ultimately consumer experience.

Consider, for example, two starkly different environments: a healthcare operation and a refinery. On the exterior, a healthcare organization, such as a hospital, looks very different from an oil-and-gas refinery. Hospitals consist, primarily, of aesthetically appealing buildings and grounds while oil refineries consist of tanks, piping, and other industrial-looking structures. As we enter these operations, noticeable differences still exist.

Inside the hospital, we observe doctors, nurses, patients, and other healthcare professionals at work. At the refinery, we see operators, crafts, engineers, and other industry specialists performing their duties. One facility encompasses exam, emergency, and operating rooms, labs, registration desks, and waiting areas, while the other encompasses control rooms, repair facilities, material storage areas, and production equipment and environments.

Once we look beyond the exterior differences, though, similarities become more noticeable. Despite one organization focusing on patient health and the other on refining crude oil, both share a long list of common business practices, have comparable organizational structures, and utilize physical assets. Both are delivering a product, and both require reliable, well-maintained equipment to do it.

Healthcare operations, such as hospitals, fall under the category of facilities maintenance, or facility management, while refineries in the oil-and-gas industry fall under the factory-maintenance category. Despite the differences in form, fit, and function, these operations are very much alike when it comes to sustaining maintenance requirements. After all, the maintenance processes and practices to ensure that the HVAC system in a hospital is operational and reliable are similar to the efforts required to ensure the reliability and operation of a refinery’s cooling system.

The HVAC system in a hospital’s operating room requires the utmost care and reliability. Temperatures and airflow must be regulated within specific parameters throughout the entire surgical procedure to help prevent infection and promote healing of a patient. If the HVAC system is not working reliably, entire operating suites can be shut down, resulting in canceled surgeries, reallocation of patients to other hospitals, and even possible litigation and damage to reputation.

The process of refining crude oil into consumer fuels and other products entails several chemical-process steps that generate enormous amounts of heat and pressure. The cooling-water system, which is associated with a cooling tower, helps control these extreme temperatures and pressures by transferring heat from hot process fluids to the cooling system. Much like the HVAC system, the cooling tower is a critical asset that requires reliable operation. Unless it performs reliably, product delivery, product quality, energy consumption, the environment, and employee safety can be severely compromised.

Have the parallels between these different types of organizations become clearer?

Maintenance 101

A hospital HVAC system and a refinery cooling tower incorporate mechanical, electronic-control, transmission, and power systems, all of which need to be maintained properly. To achieve this, facility-maintenance departments and their factory-maintenance counterparts need to ensure that the following foundational methods are established and functioning well. Think of these methods as “focusing on the fundamentals” or “the blocking and tackling” of maintenance:

Asset-care program. Most assets within any organization require some level of preventive care. This includes routine cleaning, lubrication, inspection, and adjustment to maintain reliable operation which invariably includes time-based and condition-based maintenance. This should all be documented and monitored through the maintenance strategy program.

Work-management system. The work-management system encompasses the framework, infrastructure, processes, and resources needed to manage asset-care activities, reactive or proactive. It provides the means to identify, prioritize, perform, document, and report work.

Planning and scheduling function. The planning and scheduling function defines the what, how, who, and when for proactive-maintenance work activities. The collective effort of planning and scheduling aims to minimize asset downtime, improve workforce efficiency and, reduce maintenance-induced failures.

Stores (MRO) inventory-management function. To effectively fulfill its mission, the maintenance function requires reliable and prompt material support. A proficiently managed MRO (maintenance, repair, and operations) inventory storeroom contributes to improved equipment reliability, workforce efficiency, and cost control.

Reliability engineering. The reliability engineering function is responsible for driving out sources of repetitive failure. Its mission is to provide leadership and technical expertise required to achieve and sustain optimum reliability, maintainability, useful life, and life-cycle cost for an organization’s assets.

Computerized maintenance-management system (CMMS). Proactive-maintenance organizations use data to effectively handle work activities, report performance, track costs, and enable continuous improvement efforts. The CMMS automates these processes, captures data, and provides information required to enable resource productivity and asset reliability.

Universal application

Regardless of where an asset resides, reliability depends on core reliability and maintenance fundamentals that span all industries and organizational types. Whatever the assets may be, i.e., motors, pumps, compressors, robots, conveyors, boilers, elevators, escalators, pelletizers, utilities, mobile equipment, fire-suppression systems, rotary-tablet presses, chillers, rolling mills, roadways, buildings, you name it, all require specific amounts of downtime for proactive preventive- and predictive-maintenance activities, including, but not limited to, replacement of wear parts, rebuilds, upgrades, and other improvements. Levels of maintenance may vary by organization type, but the fundamental requirement for it is universal. MT

A senior consultant with Life Cycle Engineering, Charleston, SC, Jeff Nevenhoven helps clients align organizational systems, structures, and leadership styles with business goals. Contact him at jnevenhoven@LCE.com.


learnmore2“Alignment Connects Individuals to Organization Objectives”

“Managing Your Value Stream”

“Get to the Root of the Cause”

“Profiles Reveal Reliability Trends”

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